Category Archives: Technology in ELT

Exploring the Transformative Impact of Technology on Language Teaching and Cross-cultural Understanding across Borders

Bibas Thapa

As societal shifts occur, education undergoes corresponding changes. Modern technology has changed not just how we live our everyday lives but also how classes are run, giving teachers access to a multitude of tools and resources. Modern technological development is vital in helping young people acquire and enhance cross-cultural understanding and communication skills necessary for effective day-to-day interactions in the twenty-first century (Schenker, 2013). With the use of synchronous and asynchronous modes of online resources, educators can design classrooms that closely resemble actual situations, encouraging students’ active participation. By connecting schools via platforms with synchronous modes of online learning like Skype, Zoom, Microsoft Team, Google Meet, etc., educators can connect their students with classrooms across the world to collaborate and enhance their English language skills. In this blog, I share my classroom practices of integrating technology to teach the English language and develop cross-cultural understanding by connecting my students with other students across the globe.

The Genesis of the Borderless Session

Image 1: Students in a Hungarian class connecting with the students in my class through Skype

The development of information and communication technology has widened opportunities for educators and teachers to connect with the world geographically and culturally. As a result, schooling must prepare pupils for a world shaped by globalization (Darling-Hammond, 2010; Walsh, 2016). In line with this reality, I dabbled in technology throughout my early teaching career, illuminating the classroom with projectors and PowerPoint presentations. The students began to routinely sway to the beat of my digital waltz as they grew accustomed to it. However, my students grew restless as the months went by, demanding a new technology tool and a new approach to learning instead of the regular use of PowerPoint. On Friday, during an extracurricular speech competition about the effects of Facebook use, students’ desire became quite apparent. A maximum number of secondary school students used Facebook to network, learn about current events, as well as to create new acquaintances. It is evident from their speech that students found technology to be intriguing in their learning and that they also asked for more information, communication, and technology-integrated programs in schools. That speech day got me thinking about displaying fresh concepts using technology or the same projector instead of just teaching information.

When I was skimming through my Facebook, I came across a school in Punjab, India. I reached out to a teacher regarding my interest in connecting students from each other’s classrooms, opening up opportunities for them to practice their communication skills and cultural understanding. I received a response from the teacher after a week. I began brainstorming with my students and science teacher, Kumar Rumba, about possible projects. To make the session more interesting, the country name was not revealed, as they needed to guess themselves by asking yes-no questions. Students were assigned different roles as speakers, dancers, singers, etc. Some of them were anxious and hesitant to communicate with students from another country. We did not have a computer lab or a well-managed classroom but also we decided to commemorate International Dancing Day by collaborating with other teachers in our school.

Image 2: First connecting class with the school in Punjab, India, and students from a school in Hetauda.

On a Friday afternoon, my students dressed in traditional attire waited for a Skype call. It was a new experience for all of us, and I had mixed feelings. I was worried about my laptop’s data connection and whether the Skype call would go smoothly. We gathered in an office room with ‘Yes’, and ‘No’ cards, a flag, and a globe. We received their Skype call at noon and saw teachers seated on a beautifully decorated stage, accompanied by a dancer. At first, we played a guessing game where each student tried to guess each other’s countries through a series of yes/no questions. They were not allowed to provide any clue; they just needed to show a yes or no card. After asking a series of questions, students from Punjab guessed our country correctly, and our students displayed Nepal’s flag. Later, our students also guessed their country, and they displayed their national flag. The guessing game enhanced cognitive and communication skills in my students.

Next, our students and teachers (from my school) introduced themselves to each other. The students from Punjab greeted us in their native language, and my students did the same in Nepali. They described their country’s flag, traditional attire, and the school. When my students heard simple English sentences, their confidence level increased, and those students who hesitated to speak also actively took part in the conversation. One of my students exclaimed, “Ini haruko pani English hamro jasto raichha” (their English language is also like ours), demonstrating their confidence to communicate with their counterparts. Soon, they engaged in the conversation as if they had known each other for a long time.

Following this exchange, students took turns sharing ethnic dances. This experience fostered a sense of global community. The students who were reluctant to discuss Facebook’s influence during the speech competition jumped at the chance to express themselves via dancing, like a narrative twist. It made me think about multiple ways of engaging students to cater to their multiple intelligences. The inaugural international dance between Nepal and India unfolded through the lens of Skype. Students on both ends shared not just dance steps but stories of their cultures, peering into each other’s classrooms with curiosity. 

Fueled by the spirit of connection, I embarked on a mission to virtually unite my classroom with the world. Through this project, I forged ties with international acquaintances, joined online communities, and explored the connection with other classes beyond the borders through collaboration with fellow educators. This initiative was not just about crossing borders digitally; it was crucial for nurturing listening, speaking, and cognitive skills. In this dance of learning, every step was a bridge to understanding, and every word was a note in the symphony of global education. The tale of technological integration and cultural exchange emerged as a tapestry of growth, where simplicity met depth, and every breath carried the essence of learning and unity.

Language and Cultural Exchange through Skype Video Calls

Video: My students sharing cultural dance with Vietnamese students.

When we think of a classroom, we usually think of an enclosed space with four walls devoted to teaching and learning. However, in an age where technology affects human relations, communication between language teachers and students transcends traditional classroom boundaries (Romaña, 2015). This change involves moving our daily relationships into computer communication (CMC) through email or phone calls such as WhatsApp or Skype (Romaña, 2015, p. 144). Its unique features include global connectivity via video calling and student chat options. 

After having connections with more than ten countries like Vietnam, Hungary, India, Japan, Spain, Portugal, and the USA, technology and learning through it is no longer a mystery to my students. They conversed with their international student counterparts and learned about one another’s way of life. They learned about other cultures and communities, and my students also shared their customs and cultures with their global counterparts, fostering characteristics of global citizens. They taught the international students Nepali language and cultures such as Namaskar (नमस्कार), Dhanyabaad (धन्यवाद), and Sanchai (सन्चै). My students also became familiar with Sati Sri Akala (Punjabi), and HaMacTe M. (Russian) from international students. Respecting one another’s identities and cultures eliminates communication barriers and fosters greater understanding of each other. This bridges the gap between classroom content and real-world situations. The Skype sessions also helped to improve their speaking, listening, and pronunciation skills. Since my students have taken virtual international tours to different classes, Europe is not a mystery to them. 

The Skype Sessions promoted my students’ speaking skills and self-assurance. They practiced speaking in a real-world situation and engaged with both native and non-native English speakers worldwide by utilizing Skype in the classroom. Additionally, this cooperative and methodical approach contributed to their cognitive skills, geographic awareness, and cultural comprehension in an engaging and dynamic environment. 


To sum up, the borderless Skype session exemplifies how engaging students with diverse cultures worldwide facilitates cross-cultural understanding, language learning, and global connections. It offers Nepali students a remarkable opportunity to learn about other cultures while sharing their own, creating an inclusive and enriching educational experience in an interconnected world. Reflecting on my journey, technology has profoundly transformed education in my class. Platforms like Skype have fundamentally changed the way I teach and learn languages, eliminating spatial and cultural barriers. Through virtual exchanges such as Skype sessions have become an effective means of fostering cross-cultural understanding, communication, and language acquisition. 

However, it’s essential to recognize the challenges and responsibilities of connecting classrooms globally. Teachers must manage cultural sensitivities, coordinate across time zones, and ensure clear communication to foster meaningful relationships. Teachers and students together need to learn about the cultural norms and expectations of the communities they are going to interact with and collaborate with. Likewise, they need to communicate in advance the plan, activities, time zone, and so on for the sessions. We also need to assign different roles to students to make them accountable for their learning and organizing sessions. 

Looking forward, I am excited to explore more innovative virtual exchange programs within and outside the nation. I aim to develop new strategies to overcome technological challenges and further enhance their educational experiences by integrating technological tools.

Author: Bibas Thapa is an MPhil scholar in English Language Education at Kathmandu University. He is an English lecturer and also works as an ICT facilitator. He has connected in borderless sessions with dozens of countries, such as the USA, Brazil, Portugal, Greece, Vietnam, India etc.


Darling-Hammond, L. (2010). The flat world and education. New York, NY: Teachers College Press

Romaña, Y. Skype™ Conference Calls: A Way to Promote Speaking Skills in the Teaching and Learning of English. PROFILE, 17, 143 -156.

Schenker, T. (2013). The effects of a virtual exchange on students’ interest in learning about culture. Foreign Language Annals, 46(3), 491–507. flan.12041

Walsh, L. (2016). Educating generation next: young people, teachers and schooling in transition. Houndsmill, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Experiences of Flipped Teaching Through Messenger Group: A Teacher’s Reflection

Baburam Shrestha

I have been teaching English at the basic to secondary level at government schools for more than a decade. With the advancement of technology, I have observed that teachers and parents have perceived that students are less engaged in reading textbooks and books. They think that students are more engaged in playing virtual games or using social media on their phones rather than completing assignments or engaging themselves with educational materials. Both teachers and parents have raised the question whether the ubiquitous presence of mobile phones has been a curse or a boon for students. In my perspective, it is a supporting device for them. In today’s society, it has become a fundamental tool for students to access information, communication, entertainment, and knowledge. However, by only engaging on mobile phones for games and fun can be counterproductive to their study. So, a serious question always hits me: if they like to engage on their devices, why not integrate the devices in their study. So, I created a messenger group with my students to integrate technology in their study. In this blog post, I am going to share my practices and reflect upon them.

Messenger group to integrate technology in low-resourced contexts

Schools came to closure during the COVID-19 pandemic, which brought many challenges for my colleagues and students. I was pensive as I was in a dilemma about my teaching profession. As there were no chances of opening schools, schools came up with the idea of opening learning centers across students’ communities. My colleague and I visited learning centers twice a week to assign homework package but that was not sufficient for secondary-level students. We could only accommodate 25 students in one learning center because of health protocols. During our visits, we would grade their homework, provide feedback, teach them challenging contents and assign homework for next week. I explored some of them having mobile phones and internet access at their home though a few did have access to the internet. However, they would manage to go to their peers’ house to access the internet. My observation revealed that most students were already familiar with mobile phones, they only required some ideas about using the devices for their study. Despite some limitations, I proceeded with the messenger group initiative, recognizing its potential to bridge the gap in access to educational resources and take students beyond textbooks to explore knowledge. Then I created a class messenger group and invited them to join. The group was a convenient forum for us to share resources, interact, communicate and learn. I shared study materials and assignments, and they were able to go through

A screenshot of sharing resources through messenger group

them at their own pace and time even though it was impossible to meet in school due to the pandemic. It also helped students to get some ongoing support and resolve questions as I would respond to their questions and concerns.

My approach of engaging students in their study through technology aligns with flipped learning (Flipped Learning Network, 2014) which is one of teaching approaches in classrooms today. In flipped learning, teachers provide concepts to students using either videos, audio, or presentation apps, so that students study the contents and prepare before class (Al- Samarraie et al., 2020). So that in the classroom they can spend their time collaborating with teachers and other friends to advance their knowledge and understanding about the contents, which makes the classroom activities and time more productive. In my case, I did not record and share audio and videos, instead, I used texts and visuals to summarize texts and exercises and assign the tasks to them. I also used PowerPoint slides, text, snipping tools, movies, interesting Ted Talks, Benime apps, and other tools to facilitate teaching-learning. I joined workshops offered by some teachers’ associations to enhance my knowledge and skills in using ICT in my classrooms.

I continued using the messenger group even after the pandemic. I used the forum to share the contents and assignments of the day beforehand so the students would be familiar with the contents and become prepared for the class. Then they would share their ideas too by engaging in different kinds of activities in real class. Gradually, they became

A screenshot assigning homework.

interested and accustomed to studying the shared materials and completing their homework on time. It also helped them to learn independently as they could learn in their own way at time and place. They also used the messenger group as a forum to ask follow-up questions about things they did not understand in class. I would reply and confirm the answer in the group, and they would share ideas and work with me and their peers. 

Benefits of flipped teaching

Flipped classroom vs traditional classroom

Flipped teaching is one of novel approaches where contents are shared before class with tasks assigned. Hariri et al. (2021) have illustrated that flipped learning is one of the recent and effective approaches that increase students’ interactivity and enhance the understanding of content in foreign language classrooms. I also observed some noticeable differences in student engagement and performance between traditional classroom settings and the flipped teaching approach. Unlike traditional classrooms, in flipped classes, students get direct access to knowledge with flexible contents and instructions. It was student-centered, making them active in the learning process and they were interested in studying by using mobile devices, whereas traditional classrooms are more teacher-centered where students would get less chances to interact with their teachers and peers. Similarly, they would get extra time to do their tasks and share their perspectives unlike traditional classes. In the same way, flipped teaching created an equitable opportunity for performing the tasks for students with diverse backgrounds as they would be able to study contents at their own time and pace. I also noticed that students became more independent in doing their assignments.

Benefits for my students

Parents and teachers blamed students for spending too much time on their devices and with our virtual forum, they also used their devices for study purposes. One interesting observation I made was that those who had previously neglected reading began showing interest and followed up for classroom assignments with their friends in the messenger group. Additionally, some of the students shared their work in the group. Similarly, students who had difficulty with exercises were able to comprehend complex questions

Students submitting their works through the messenger group.

and share answers due to conversation and scaffolding in the group. Even absentees shared their assignments in class as the class materials and homework were shared through the group. The class had various student types, including shy ones, who felt comfortable expressing curiosity to teachers and developed a habit of engaging with messages and reading contents. It boosted their confidence, heightened reading awareness, and accelerated learning via social media. 

Benefits for teacher

I used the virtual group to share some learning materials including content-related videos, PowerPoint slides, books, and podcasts online in advance which helped them to understand assigned materials and get ready for the next class. It also helped them in following home assignments as they could ask follow-up questions, leave their comments, and share their learning. It was also convenient for me to follow them up for their assignment through messenger. Likewise, I reused the materials and resources for other classes, so that I did not have to create another set of materials again. Embracing new technology, I further developed my teaching skills and sparked my interest in using technological tools.

Some challenges of flipped teaching

Although I was able to build a virtual students’ community to support each other in their learning, my students and I faced some challenges. Students, especially from remote parts, faced some difficulties in the internet connection. Students with internet access joined the group, but not everyone did. Those without internet access used mobile data, which proved costly and sometimes caused issues with downloading materials. Consequently, some were initially not involved in the messenger group, while others, despite being in the group, showed little interest. Gradually a few student ambassadors’ word-of-mouth brought more students back to the group and they started engaging in conversation and submitting their assignments through it. Additionally, it was a little challenging for me to make sure that they did not post irrelevant materials and messages to the group. So, the takeaway is to orient students to the dos and don’ts of virtual forums in the classroom. 

Closing thoughts

Flipped classroom teaching through messenger groups is one of the recent teaching approaches that I adopted in my classroom. It can cater to multiple learning styles of students as it opens up both synchronous and asynchronous doors of learning. In my experiences, it has been valuable for both teacher and students as it helped me to share digital resources which are not possible to share in the classroom due to lack of technology. Moreover, I was able to clarify their doubts and confusion through the group chat. Students also had opportunities for collaboration, conversation and acquiring knowledge through shared resources independently. It was helpful in making students independent in their study and confident in expressing their ideas. Additionally, I was able to teach them how they can use their mobile devices beyond communication and entertainment to access knowledge and integrate technology into education. Logistically, teachers need to have some digital literacy, but they do not need to be highly skilled in using technology though having more knowledge and skills is always helpful. I had a general idea of operating computers or mobile devices and creating a messenger group. Similarly, I was comfortable working with slides or word files, designing activities and sharing them in our virtual group. Also, we can also always find useful resources and activities online and use them.

Author: Baburam Shrestha is an MPhil scholar in English language Education at Kathmandu University. He has been teaching English from basic level to bachelor level since 2017. He is a published author in national and international levels. He is a life member of NELTA and an executive member of NELTA, Sindhuli. His areas of interest are literature, multilingualism, autoethnography and narrative inquiry.


Al- Samarraie, H., Shamsuddin, A., & Alzahrani, A. l (2020). A Flipped classroom model in higher education: a review of the evidence across discipline Education Technology Research and Development, 68(3), 1017-1051.

Flipped Learning Network. (2014). The Four Pillars of F-L-I-P™. Flipped Learning Network Hub.

Han E. & Klein KC. Pre-class learning methods for flipped classroom. Am J Pharm Educ 83: 6922, 2019. doi:10.5688/ajpe6922.

Haririe Asl. Mafton, P. & Marandi, S (2021). Collaborative Flip Learning Through Call. A Recipe for Realizing Social Presence in Virtual Learning Environment. 

Reidsema, C., Kavanagh, L., Hadgraft, R. & Smith, N (2017). The Flipped Classroom. Practice and practices in higher Education. Springer.

AI in Education: Exploring implications of ChatGPT in English Language Teaching

Dammar Singh Saud


This study examines the multifaceted impact of artificial intelligence (AI) within the academic realm, specifically focusing on the writing tool ChatGPT. This research aims to explore the perspectives of teachers regarding the use of AI in English language teaching. For this purpose the data were elicited through semi-structured interviews with four English language teachers, especially focusing on the role of teachers and the advantages and limitations of AI-based tools in ELT. The findings of this study contribute to the ongoing discourse on the optimal integration of AI in the academic landscape, providing valuable insights for practitioners, policymakers, and researchers alike.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, ChatGPT, Human Intelligence 


Artificial Intelligence has garnered significant attention in recent years, propelled by advancements such as the development of ChatGPT, a novel writing tool created by OpenAI. OpenAI (n.d.) asserts that ChatGPT possesses the remarkable capability to generate answers to even the most complex inquiries in the fields of science and technology. ChatGPT has been widely acclaimed for its versatility. ChatGPT stands apart from other chatbots due to its utilization of natural language techniques, enabling it to respond in a truly conversational manner to user-generated inquiries (Metz, 2022).  It engages in conversational interactions, allowing it to answer follow-up questions, acknowledge errors, challenge incorrect assumptions, and decline inappropriate requests (OpenAI, n.d.). It is a versatile AI language model that allows users to have interactive conversations and address a wide range of writing challenges with the help of AI-powered agents.

AI-powered tools, such as ChatGPT, have become increasingly popular in the realm of writing and communication. These tools offer users the convenience of automated assistance, enabling them to generate content, brainstorm ideas, and receive instant feedback. According to Wen and Wang (2023), the most promising aspect of ChatGPT is its capacity to use deep learning techniques to provide replies to text input that is human-like at a level far above that of any other AI model.   OpenAI’s ChatGPT has gained attention for its ability to generate coherent and contextually relevant responses, making it a potentially valuable resource for writers, researchers, and students alike.  Lund and Wang (2023) stated that ChatGPT is a freely available tool created by OpenAI that makes use of GPT technology. It may perform a variety of text-based requests as a sophisticated chatbot, including responding to basic inquiries and carrying out more complex activities like creating thank-you notes and solving problems with productivity.

The utilization of AI tools in educational settings has become a subject of particular interest. ChatGPT shows great promise in open education by enhancing the self-reliance and self-direction of self-taught learners while remaining practical and flexible in its application (Firat, 2023). The integration of AI, particularly ChatGPT, into the academic landscape has sparked numerous discussions and inquiries regarding its impact on various aspects of education. Consequently, this study seeks to provide valuable insights for scholars, educators, and researchers by critically examining the multifaceted implications of AI in the academic realm.


In this study, a narrative research approach was employed to explore the multifaceted impact of AI, specifically ChatGPT, within the academic landscape. The methodology involved the collection and analysis of data from various sources, including interviews with four English teachers and insights from the creators of ChatGPT. By incorporating data from these diverse sources, the study aimed to provide a comprehensive understanding of the subject matter. Interviews were conducted with teachers to collect firsthand experience using AI technologies in English language teaching,

Results and Discussions

The results and discussion section elucidates the outcomes derived from an exploration of the impact of artificial intelligence, specifically ChatGPT, on human intelligence, with a focus on its implications in English language teaching and learning.

The AI’s Influence on Human Intelligence

The advent of artificial intelligence, exemplified by ChatGPT, has ignited extensive debates and discussions regarding its potential impact on human intelligence. The findings of this study revealed a diverse range of perspectives among the respondents. T1 and T3 expressed surprise and concern, highlighting their doubts about humans’ ability to invent a tool that challenges their intellectual relevance. This sentiment underscores the underlying fear of obsolescence that some individuals experience in the face of advancing AI technologies. T1, when confronted with the latest developments in AI, exhibited a palpable sense of surprise. This surprise emanated from the realization that AI has progressed to a point where it challenges the traditional understanding of human intellectual superiority. T1’s astonishment is evident in their statements, such as “I never thought we’d see the day when machines could pose a threat to our cognitive prowess.”

As T1 delved deeper into the implications of these advancements, a concern emerged regarding the feasibility of humans inventing tools that could rival or surpass their intellectual abilities. This concern was expressed through questions like, “Can we really create something that competes with the complexity and depth of human thought?” T1’s skepticism underlines a fundamental doubt about the potential of human ingenuity to keep pace with AI, contributing to the broader narrative of anxiety surrounding the evolving relationship between humans and technology, as discussed by Mukherjee (2020).

On the contrary, T2, when reflecting on the historical trajectory of technological innovations, emphasized the positive narrative that has accompanied these advancements. T2 pointed out the widespread celebration of inventions such as calculators, highlighting their role in revolutionizing mathematical efficiency. “Think about how we celebrated the advent of calculators,” T2 remarked, “they didn’t replace our ability to think but amplified our computational power, making complex tasks more accessible.” T2’s narrative suggests a pattern of historical celebration rooted in the belief that these technologies, far from diminishing human capabilities, have consistently augmented, and improved various aspects of daily life.

In the same vein, T4 emphasized a historical inclination to celebrate innovations that improve efficiency and connectivity; a perspective consistent with the findings of Arini et al. (2022).Drawing parallels to earlier technological advancements, T4 invoked the example of televisions, highlighting their role in shaping the entertainment and news dissemination. T4 argued, “We’ve consistently celebrated inventions that bring people together and make our lives more efficient. It’s a testament to our openness to embracing technologies that amplify human capabilities.” T2 and T4 argued that the historical celebration of technological inventions, such as calculators, televisions, and the internet, indicates a propensity for embracing advancements that enhance human capabilities and improve efficiency (McGee, 2023). McGee’s study further supports this notion by demonstrating ChatGPT’s ability to craft compelling short stories, showcasing the potential of AI in creative endeavours and suggesting that AI can be a valuable tool for augmenting human intelligence.

The positive perspectives expressed by T2 and T4 emphasize the potential benefits of AI in augmenting human intelligence. The respondents highlighted the efficiency and effectiveness of AI-powered technologies, such as intelligent tutoring systems and personalized recommendation algorithms, in enhancing learning, problem-solving, and decision-making capabilities. This aligns with the notion that AI can provide access to vast amounts of information and enable faster and more accurate processing, ultimately improving human cognitive performance.

However, it is important not to disregard the concerns raised by T1 and T3. T1’s concerns revolve around the potential consequences of excessive reliance on AI, particularly in the realm of critical thinking and problem-solving. T1, expressing apprehension, noted, “We need to be cautious about depending too much on AI for our thinking processes. There’s a risk of diminishing our ability to critically analyze situations and solve problems independently.” T1 raises an essential consideration, pointing to the necessity of striking a balance between leveraging AI assistance and ensuring the continued development of human cognitive abilities. The concern is anchored in the belief that an overreliance on AI may hinder the cultivation of critical thinking skills, which are fundamental to human intelligence.

Similarly, T3’s caution regarding biases and ethical challenges associated with AI algorithms points to the need for scrutiny and regulation of AI systems to ensure fairness, transparency, and ethical decision-making. T3 remarked, “We can’t ignore the potential biases that AI algorithms may inherit, and the ethical dilemmas they might create. There’s a responsibility to ensure fairness, transparency, and ethical decision-making in AI systems.”

T3’s perspective prompts a critical examination of the societal implications of AI, emphasizing the importance of establishing ethical guidelines and regulatory frameworks to mitigate potential harms. T3’s caution serves as a reminder that the integration of AI requires thoughtful consideration to prevent unintended consequences and to safeguard against biases in decision-making processes.

A notable point of contention raised by T1 is the limitation of AI in replicating creativity and emotional intelligence, which are essential components of human intelligence. Human intelligence encompasses emotional understanding, empathy, and artistic expression, which AI struggles to replicate accurately. T2, when discussing the limitations of AI, emphasized the need to view AI not as a replacement for human creativity but as a tool that can complement and support it. T2 noted, “Sure, AI has its limitations, especially in replicating the depth of human creativity. But we shouldn’t see it as a hindrance; rather, AI can act as a valuable ally, offering new perspectives and possibilities.”

Further, T2 provided examples of AI applications in creative fields, such as music composition and visual arts, where AI algorithms have been used to generate novel ideas and inspire human artists. T2’s perspective reflects an openness to the collaborative potential between humans and AI, suggesting that rather than stifling creativity, AI can catalyze pushing creative boundaries.

Similarly, T4 echoed this optimistic perspective, recognizing the limitations of AI while emphasizing its capacity to act as a supportive force for human creativity. T4 stated, “AI may not fully replicate human creativity, but it can certainly enhance it. We’ve seen instances where AI-driven tools contribute to the creative process, offering fresh insights and sparking innovative ideas.”

T4 referred to collaborative efforts between artists and AI systems, showcasing how these partnerships can result in unique and groundbreaking creations. T4’s narrative underscores the idea that AI has the potential to inspire and augment human creativity rather than diminish it, presenting an optimistic view of the symbiotic relationship between technology and artistic expression.

Artificial Intelligence and its Role in English Language Teaching

The integration of Artificial Intelligence in English Language Teaching is transforming traditional pedagogical approaches. T2 and T4 provide unique insights into the various AI-driven innovations that enhance personalized learning experiences and streamline administrative tasks, contributing to a more effective and dynamic ELT environment.

While T2 emphasizes the concept of personalized learning and the transformative impact of AI in language assessment, as discussed by Sun (2023), T4 delves into AI’s role in refining language skills, particularly in the realms of speech recognition, pronunciation improvement, and immersive experiences. Both perspectives shed light on the multifaceted contributions of AI to language education, providing specific data and insights.

T1’s perspective aligns with T2’s focus on personalized learning, emphasizing the transformative impact of AI in language assessment. T1 acknowledges the potential of AI to revolutionize language learning by stating, “AI has the capability to analyze individual student data and create personalized learning paths. This tailoring extends to adaptive materials and exercises that cater to learners’ strengths and weaknesses, accommodating their unique pace and learning style.”

Furthermore, T1 emphasizes the role of automated evaluations facilitated by AI, covering various language aspects. T1 notes, “Automated evaluations encompass grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, and writing. This comprehensive assessment ensures a well-rounded understanding of a student’s language proficiency.” T1 also underscores the accessibility and flexibility of language learning through the integration of AI-driven chatbots, stating, “The inclusion of AI-driven chatbots provides students with a 24/7 conversational interface for continuous language practice, enhancing accessibility and flexibility in language learning.”

In T4’s narrative, the focus is on AI’s role in refining language skills, particularly in the areas of speech recognition, pronunciation improvement, and immersive experiences. T4 underscores the real-time feedback provided by AI-driven applications, stating, “AI-driven applications offer real-time feedback on spoken language, assisting learners in honing their pronunciation and fluency.”

T4 expands on the role of AI in content creation and adaptation, in line with the research conducted by Koraishi (2023), who mentions, “AI contributes to content creation and adaptation, generating interactive materials tailored to individual needs and proficiency levels. This adaptability ensures a personalized and effective learning experience.” The integration of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) technologies, powered by AI, is highlighted by T4 for immersive language learning experiences. T4 notes, “VR and AR technologies, powered by AI, provide immersive language learning experiences, simulating real-world scenarios for practical language use and cultural exposure.”

Moreover, T4 recognizes the value of AI in data analysis for educators, stating, “AI facilitates data analysis for educators, enabling the identification of trends and patterns in student performance. This data-driven approach enhances teaching methods and course effectiveness, ensuring a more tailored and impactful language education.”

T1 and T4’s narratives provide a comprehensive understanding of the varied contributions of AI to language learning. T2’s emphasis on personalized learning and transformative language assessment aligns with T1’s recognition of AI’s capability to tailor learning paths and facilitate automated evaluations. Additionally, T4’s focus on refining language skills through real-time feedback, immersive experiences, and data analysis complements the broader picture of AI’s impact on language education. Together, these perspectives highlight the rich potential of AI to revolutionize language learning, catering to individual needs, enhancing accessibility, and optimizing teaching methodologies.

The incorporation of AI into the academic realm has sparked discussions about the evolving role of teachers. T1 and T3 express concerns about the potential obsolescence of traditional teachers as AI-powered tools gain prominence. On the contrary, T2 and T4 highlight the enduring significance of human teachers, emphasizing the irreplaceable role of physical presence, support, guidance, and feedback in fostering student achievement.

T1, in expressing concerns about the integration of AI, specifically referenced AI-powered tools like ChatGPT potentially rendering traditional English teachers obsolete. T1’s apprehensions centre around the idea that advanced AI tools could replace or diminish the need for human educators. T1 remarked, “With tools like ChatGPT, there’s a risk that traditional English teachers might become obsolete. The worry is that AI could take over the role of guiding and instructing students in language skills.” T1’s perspective reflects broader anxiety about the changing dynamics in the academic sphere and raises questions about the potential displacement of human educators by AI technologies.

T3, in a similar vein, expressed apprehension about the impact of AI-based solutions on the necessity of human educators. T3 pondered whether learners, with access to AI solutions providing instant answers, might no longer require the guidance and expertise of human teachers. T3 articulated, “If AI can provide quick answers to every question, what’s left for human educators to do? There’s a risk that students may no longer see the value in learning from human teachers.” T3’s concerns highlight the potential shift in the perceived value of human educators in the face of readily available AI-based solutions, prompting a reflection on the evolving role of teachers in the educational landscape.

In contrast, T2 and T4 emphasized the enduring significance of human teachers in the learning process. They underscored the importance of physical presence, support, guidance, and feedback as pivotal elements contributing to students’ achievements. T2 specifically addressed the limitations of AI, stating, “While AI can offer assistance, it lacks the personal touch and nuanced understanding that human teachers bring to the table. The physical presence of a teacher is crucial in creating a supportive learning environment.” Similarly, T4 echoed this sentiment, stating, “AI can provide information, but human teachers provide more than just knowledge. They offer support, guidance, and personalized feedback that contribute significantly to students’ academic and personal development.”

The diverse perspectives of T1, T2, T3, and T4 highlight the complex considerations surrounding the integration of AI into education.  The narratives collectively underscore the need for a balanced approach that leverages the strengths of AI tools while recognizing the irreplaceable role of human teachers. The integration of AI should be viewed as a supplementary aid, enhancing the educational experience rather than replacing the invaluable qualities that human teachers bring to the academic sphere.

One of the most substantial advantages of AI-based tools in academic writing is their potential to save time and improve efficiency (T1 and T3). Natural language processing algorithms, as highlighted in the study conducted by Golan et al. (2023), can assist authors in identifying and correcting errors in their work, enabling them to focus more on the content of their writing rather than on mechanical aspects. This aspect allows students and researchers to allocate more time and energy to higher-order cognitive processes, such as analysis, synthesis, and critical evaluation. However, it is crucial to exercise caution and critical judgment when utilizing AI tools in writing tasks to ensure the integrity and quality of the work produced. While AI can offer valuable support, it is not a substitute for the intellectual rigour and originality that human authors bring to their scholarly pursuits.

Respondents also acknowledged that while AI assists with various writing tasks, it also has its limitations. For example, ChatGPT struggles to accurately write a biography, underscoring the need for human teachers to fill these gaps and provide a more comprehensive and nuanced educational experience. This aligns with the perspective that AI should be viewed as a complement to, rather than a replacement for, human educators (McGee, 2023). It is essential to recognize the unique qualities and contributions of human teachers in fostering critical thinking, creativity, and interpersonal skills in students. The integration of AI in academic writing offers advantages in terms of time-saving and efficiency improvements, as highlighted by Golan et al. (2023). Nevertheless, a balanced approach that combines AI tools’ strengths with human educators’ expertise and guidance is essential to ensure a comprehensive and high-quality educational experience.


In conclusion, the integration of AI, specifically ChatGPT, in English language teaching has brought forth a range of outcomes with both positive and negative implications.   AI Online platforms like Khan Academy, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), and video conferences offer learners ample opportunities for self-directed learning, provides alternative pathways that do not impede individual development or hinder creativity. ChatGPT emerges as a valuable tool for empowering students with personalized advice, support   receive tailored guidance.  Additionally, ChatGPT serves as a self-evaluation and reflection instrument, cultivating accountability, active participation, and the development of essential skills and strategies for as self-directed learning. Hence, Instead of outright forbidding or dismissing the adoption of this technology, educational institutions should exercise appropriate control and promote responsible usage upholding ethical considerations and academic integrity. Educational institutions can achieve this by adopting a cautious and well-regulated approach that addresses potential risks or challenges while harnessing the potential of ChatGPT to enhance the learning experience (Office of Educational Technology, n.d.).


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About the Author: Dammar Singh Saud, currently serving as an assistant professor at Far Western University Darchula Multiple Campus in Nepal, earned his MPhil in English Language Education from Kathmandu University. His research focuses on several areas, including ELT Pedagogy, ICT in ELT, Professional Development, and Translanguaging.