Category Archives: How AI help in shaping language

AI in Education: Exploring implications of ChatGPT in English Language Teaching

Dammar Singh Saud


This study examines the multifaceted impact of artificial intelligence (AI) within the academic realm, specifically focusing on the writing tool ChatGPT. This research aims to explore the perspectives of teachers regarding the use of AI in English language teaching. For this purpose the data were elicited through semi-structured interviews with four English language teachers, especially focusing on the role of teachers and the advantages and limitations of AI-based tools in ELT. The findings of this study contribute to the ongoing discourse on the optimal integration of AI in the academic landscape, providing valuable insights for practitioners, policymakers, and researchers alike.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, ChatGPT, Human Intelligence 


Artificial Intelligence has garnered significant attention in recent years, propelled by advancements such as the development of ChatGPT, a novel writing tool created by OpenAI. OpenAI (n.d.) asserts that ChatGPT possesses the remarkable capability to generate answers to even the most complex inquiries in the fields of science and technology. ChatGPT has been widely acclaimed for its versatility. ChatGPT stands apart from other chatbots due to its utilization of natural language techniques, enabling it to respond in a truly conversational manner to user-generated inquiries (Metz, 2022).  It engages in conversational interactions, allowing it to answer follow-up questions, acknowledge errors, challenge incorrect assumptions, and decline inappropriate requests (OpenAI, n.d.). It is a versatile AI language model that allows users to have interactive conversations and address a wide range of writing challenges with the help of AI-powered agents.

AI-powered tools, such as ChatGPT, have become increasingly popular in the realm of writing and communication. These tools offer users the convenience of automated assistance, enabling them to generate content, brainstorm ideas, and receive instant feedback. According to Wen and Wang (2023), the most promising aspect of ChatGPT is its capacity to use deep learning techniques to provide replies to text input that is human-like at a level far above that of any other AI model.   OpenAI’s ChatGPT has gained attention for its ability to generate coherent and contextually relevant responses, making it a potentially valuable resource for writers, researchers, and students alike.  Lund and Wang (2023) stated that ChatGPT is a freely available tool created by OpenAI that makes use of GPT technology. It may perform a variety of text-based requests as a sophisticated chatbot, including responding to basic inquiries and carrying out more complex activities like creating thank-you notes and solving problems with productivity.

The utilization of AI tools in educational settings has become a subject of particular interest. ChatGPT shows great promise in open education by enhancing the self-reliance and self-direction of self-taught learners while remaining practical and flexible in its application (Firat, 2023). The integration of AI, particularly ChatGPT, into the academic landscape has sparked numerous discussions and inquiries regarding its impact on various aspects of education. Consequently, this study seeks to provide valuable insights for scholars, educators, and researchers by critically examining the multifaceted implications of AI in the academic realm.


In this study, a narrative research approach was employed to explore the multifaceted impact of AI, specifically ChatGPT, within the academic landscape. The methodology involved the collection and analysis of data from various sources, including interviews with four English teachers and insights from the creators of ChatGPT. By incorporating data from these diverse sources, the study aimed to provide a comprehensive understanding of the subject matter. Interviews were conducted with teachers to collect firsthand experience using AI technologies in English language teaching,

Results and Discussions

The results and discussion section elucidates the outcomes derived from an exploration of the impact of artificial intelligence, specifically ChatGPT, on human intelligence, with a focus on its implications in English language teaching and learning.

The AI’s Influence on Human Intelligence

The advent of artificial intelligence, exemplified by ChatGPT, has ignited extensive debates and discussions regarding its potential impact on human intelligence. The findings of this study revealed a diverse range of perspectives among the respondents. T1 and T3 expressed surprise and concern, highlighting their doubts about humans’ ability to invent a tool that challenges their intellectual relevance. This sentiment underscores the underlying fear of obsolescence that some individuals experience in the face of advancing AI technologies. T1, when confronted with the latest developments in AI, exhibited a palpable sense of surprise. This surprise emanated from the realization that AI has progressed to a point where it challenges the traditional understanding of human intellectual superiority. T1’s astonishment is evident in their statements, such as “I never thought we’d see the day when machines could pose a threat to our cognitive prowess.”

As T1 delved deeper into the implications of these advancements, a concern emerged regarding the feasibility of humans inventing tools that could rival or surpass their intellectual abilities. This concern was expressed through questions like, “Can we really create something that competes with the complexity and depth of human thought?” T1’s skepticism underlines a fundamental doubt about the potential of human ingenuity to keep pace with AI, contributing to the broader narrative of anxiety surrounding the evolving relationship between humans and technology, as discussed by Mukherjee (2020).

On the contrary, T2, when reflecting on the historical trajectory of technological innovations, emphasized the positive narrative that has accompanied these advancements. T2 pointed out the widespread celebration of inventions such as calculators, highlighting their role in revolutionizing mathematical efficiency. “Think about how we celebrated the advent of calculators,” T2 remarked, “they didn’t replace our ability to think but amplified our computational power, making complex tasks more accessible.” T2’s narrative suggests a pattern of historical celebration rooted in the belief that these technologies, far from diminishing human capabilities, have consistently augmented, and improved various aspects of daily life.

In the same vein, T4 emphasized a historical inclination to celebrate innovations that improve efficiency and connectivity; a perspective consistent with the findings of Arini et al. (2022).Drawing parallels to earlier technological advancements, T4 invoked the example of televisions, highlighting their role in shaping the entertainment and news dissemination. T4 argued, “We’ve consistently celebrated inventions that bring people together and make our lives more efficient. It’s a testament to our openness to embracing technologies that amplify human capabilities.” T2 and T4 argued that the historical celebration of technological inventions, such as calculators, televisions, and the internet, indicates a propensity for embracing advancements that enhance human capabilities and improve efficiency (McGee, 2023). McGee’s study further supports this notion by demonstrating ChatGPT’s ability to craft compelling short stories, showcasing the potential of AI in creative endeavours and suggesting that AI can be a valuable tool for augmenting human intelligence.

The positive perspectives expressed by T2 and T4 emphasize the potential benefits of AI in augmenting human intelligence. The respondents highlighted the efficiency and effectiveness of AI-powered technologies, such as intelligent tutoring systems and personalized recommendation algorithms, in enhancing learning, problem-solving, and decision-making capabilities. This aligns with the notion that AI can provide access to vast amounts of information and enable faster and more accurate processing, ultimately improving human cognitive performance.

However, it is important not to disregard the concerns raised by T1 and T3. T1’s concerns revolve around the potential consequences of excessive reliance on AI, particularly in the realm of critical thinking and problem-solving. T1, expressing apprehension, noted, “We need to be cautious about depending too much on AI for our thinking processes. There’s a risk of diminishing our ability to critically analyze situations and solve problems independently.” T1 raises an essential consideration, pointing to the necessity of striking a balance between leveraging AI assistance and ensuring the continued development of human cognitive abilities. The concern is anchored in the belief that an overreliance on AI may hinder the cultivation of critical thinking skills, which are fundamental to human intelligence.

Similarly, T3’s caution regarding biases and ethical challenges associated with AI algorithms points to the need for scrutiny and regulation of AI systems to ensure fairness, transparency, and ethical decision-making. T3 remarked, “We can’t ignore the potential biases that AI algorithms may inherit, and the ethical dilemmas they might create. There’s a responsibility to ensure fairness, transparency, and ethical decision-making in AI systems.”

T3’s perspective prompts a critical examination of the societal implications of AI, emphasizing the importance of establishing ethical guidelines and regulatory frameworks to mitigate potential harms. T3’s caution serves as a reminder that the integration of AI requires thoughtful consideration to prevent unintended consequences and to safeguard against biases in decision-making processes.

A notable point of contention raised by T1 is the limitation of AI in replicating creativity and emotional intelligence, which are essential components of human intelligence. Human intelligence encompasses emotional understanding, empathy, and artistic expression, which AI struggles to replicate accurately. T2, when discussing the limitations of AI, emphasized the need to view AI not as a replacement for human creativity but as a tool that can complement and support it. T2 noted, “Sure, AI has its limitations, especially in replicating the depth of human creativity. But we shouldn’t see it as a hindrance; rather, AI can act as a valuable ally, offering new perspectives and possibilities.”

Further, T2 provided examples of AI applications in creative fields, such as music composition and visual arts, where AI algorithms have been used to generate novel ideas and inspire human artists. T2’s perspective reflects an openness to the collaborative potential between humans and AI, suggesting that rather than stifling creativity, AI can catalyze pushing creative boundaries.

Similarly, T4 echoed this optimistic perspective, recognizing the limitations of AI while emphasizing its capacity to act as a supportive force for human creativity. T4 stated, “AI may not fully replicate human creativity, but it can certainly enhance it. We’ve seen instances where AI-driven tools contribute to the creative process, offering fresh insights and sparking innovative ideas.”

T4 referred to collaborative efforts between artists and AI systems, showcasing how these partnerships can result in unique and groundbreaking creations. T4’s narrative underscores the idea that AI has the potential to inspire and augment human creativity rather than diminish it, presenting an optimistic view of the symbiotic relationship between technology and artistic expression.

Artificial Intelligence and its Role in English Language Teaching

The integration of Artificial Intelligence in English Language Teaching is transforming traditional pedagogical approaches. T2 and T4 provide unique insights into the various AI-driven innovations that enhance personalized learning experiences and streamline administrative tasks, contributing to a more effective and dynamic ELT environment.

While T2 emphasizes the concept of personalized learning and the transformative impact of AI in language assessment, as discussed by Sun (2023), T4 delves into AI’s role in refining language skills, particularly in the realms of speech recognition, pronunciation improvement, and immersive experiences. Both perspectives shed light on the multifaceted contributions of AI to language education, providing specific data and insights.

T1’s perspective aligns with T2’s focus on personalized learning, emphasizing the transformative impact of AI in language assessment. T1 acknowledges the potential of AI to revolutionize language learning by stating, “AI has the capability to analyze individual student data and create personalized learning paths. This tailoring extends to adaptive materials and exercises that cater to learners’ strengths and weaknesses, accommodating their unique pace and learning style.”

Furthermore, T1 emphasizes the role of automated evaluations facilitated by AI, covering various language aspects. T1 notes, “Automated evaluations encompass grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, and writing. This comprehensive assessment ensures a well-rounded understanding of a student’s language proficiency.” T1 also underscores the accessibility and flexibility of language learning through the integration of AI-driven chatbots, stating, “The inclusion of AI-driven chatbots provides students with a 24/7 conversational interface for continuous language practice, enhancing accessibility and flexibility in language learning.”

In T4’s narrative, the focus is on AI’s role in refining language skills, particularly in the areas of speech recognition, pronunciation improvement, and immersive experiences. T4 underscores the real-time feedback provided by AI-driven applications, stating, “AI-driven applications offer real-time feedback on spoken language, assisting learners in honing their pronunciation and fluency.”

T4 expands on the role of AI in content creation and adaptation, in line with the research conducted by Koraishi (2023), who mentions, “AI contributes to content creation and adaptation, generating interactive materials tailored to individual needs and proficiency levels. This adaptability ensures a personalized and effective learning experience.” The integration of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) technologies, powered by AI, is highlighted by T4 for immersive language learning experiences. T4 notes, “VR and AR technologies, powered by AI, provide immersive language learning experiences, simulating real-world scenarios for practical language use and cultural exposure.”

Moreover, T4 recognizes the value of AI in data analysis for educators, stating, “AI facilitates data analysis for educators, enabling the identification of trends and patterns in student performance. This data-driven approach enhances teaching methods and course effectiveness, ensuring a more tailored and impactful language education.”

T1 and T4’s narratives provide a comprehensive understanding of the varied contributions of AI to language learning. T2’s emphasis on personalized learning and transformative language assessment aligns with T1’s recognition of AI’s capability to tailor learning paths and facilitate automated evaluations. Additionally, T4’s focus on refining language skills through real-time feedback, immersive experiences, and data analysis complements the broader picture of AI’s impact on language education. Together, these perspectives highlight the rich potential of AI to revolutionize language learning, catering to individual needs, enhancing accessibility, and optimizing teaching methodologies.

The incorporation of AI into the academic realm has sparked discussions about the evolving role of teachers. T1 and T3 express concerns about the potential obsolescence of traditional teachers as AI-powered tools gain prominence. On the contrary, T2 and T4 highlight the enduring significance of human teachers, emphasizing the irreplaceable role of physical presence, support, guidance, and feedback in fostering student achievement.

T1, in expressing concerns about the integration of AI, specifically referenced AI-powered tools like ChatGPT potentially rendering traditional English teachers obsolete. T1’s apprehensions centre around the idea that advanced AI tools could replace or diminish the need for human educators. T1 remarked, “With tools like ChatGPT, there’s a risk that traditional English teachers might become obsolete. The worry is that AI could take over the role of guiding and instructing students in language skills.” T1’s perspective reflects broader anxiety about the changing dynamics in the academic sphere and raises questions about the potential displacement of human educators by AI technologies.

T3, in a similar vein, expressed apprehension about the impact of AI-based solutions on the necessity of human educators. T3 pondered whether learners, with access to AI solutions providing instant answers, might no longer require the guidance and expertise of human teachers. T3 articulated, “If AI can provide quick answers to every question, what’s left for human educators to do? There’s a risk that students may no longer see the value in learning from human teachers.” T3’s concerns highlight the potential shift in the perceived value of human educators in the face of readily available AI-based solutions, prompting a reflection on the evolving role of teachers in the educational landscape.

In contrast, T2 and T4 emphasized the enduring significance of human teachers in the learning process. They underscored the importance of physical presence, support, guidance, and feedback as pivotal elements contributing to students’ achievements. T2 specifically addressed the limitations of AI, stating, “While AI can offer assistance, it lacks the personal touch and nuanced understanding that human teachers bring to the table. The physical presence of a teacher is crucial in creating a supportive learning environment.” Similarly, T4 echoed this sentiment, stating, “AI can provide information, but human teachers provide more than just knowledge. They offer support, guidance, and personalized feedback that contribute significantly to students’ academic and personal development.”

The diverse perspectives of T1, T2, T3, and T4 highlight the complex considerations surrounding the integration of AI into education.  The narratives collectively underscore the need for a balanced approach that leverages the strengths of AI tools while recognizing the irreplaceable role of human teachers. The integration of AI should be viewed as a supplementary aid, enhancing the educational experience rather than replacing the invaluable qualities that human teachers bring to the academic sphere.

One of the most substantial advantages of AI-based tools in academic writing is their potential to save time and improve efficiency (T1 and T3). Natural language processing algorithms, as highlighted in the study conducted by Golan et al. (2023), can assist authors in identifying and correcting errors in their work, enabling them to focus more on the content of their writing rather than on mechanical aspects. This aspect allows students and researchers to allocate more time and energy to higher-order cognitive processes, such as analysis, synthesis, and critical evaluation. However, it is crucial to exercise caution and critical judgment when utilizing AI tools in writing tasks to ensure the integrity and quality of the work produced. While AI can offer valuable support, it is not a substitute for the intellectual rigour and originality that human authors bring to their scholarly pursuits.

Respondents also acknowledged that while AI assists with various writing tasks, it also has its limitations. For example, ChatGPT struggles to accurately write a biography, underscoring the need for human teachers to fill these gaps and provide a more comprehensive and nuanced educational experience. This aligns with the perspective that AI should be viewed as a complement to, rather than a replacement for, human educators (McGee, 2023). It is essential to recognize the unique qualities and contributions of human teachers in fostering critical thinking, creativity, and interpersonal skills in students. The integration of AI in academic writing offers advantages in terms of time-saving and efficiency improvements, as highlighted by Golan et al. (2023). Nevertheless, a balanced approach that combines AI tools’ strengths with human educators’ expertise and guidance is essential to ensure a comprehensive and high-quality educational experience.


In conclusion, the integration of AI, specifically ChatGPT, in English language teaching has brought forth a range of outcomes with both positive and negative implications.   AI Online platforms like Khan Academy, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), and video conferences offer learners ample opportunities for self-directed learning, provides alternative pathways that do not impede individual development or hinder creativity. ChatGPT emerges as a valuable tool for empowering students with personalized advice, support   receive tailored guidance.  Additionally, ChatGPT serves as a self-evaluation and reflection instrument, cultivating accountability, active participation, and the development of essential skills and strategies for as self-directed learning. Hence, Instead of outright forbidding or dismissing the adoption of this technology, educational institutions should exercise appropriate control and promote responsible usage upholding ethical considerations and academic integrity. Educational institutions can achieve this by adopting a cautious and well-regulated approach that addresses potential risks or challenges while harnessing the potential of ChatGPT to enhance the learning experience (Office of Educational Technology, n.d.).


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About the Author: Dammar Singh Saud, currently serving as an assistant professor at Far Western University Darchula Multiple Campus in Nepal, earned his MPhil in English Language Education from Kathmandu University. His research focuses on several areas, including ELT Pedagogy, ICT in ELT, Professional Development, and Translanguaging.