NELTA Choutari October Issue, 2012

Dear October Choutari readers,

I have always been thrilled to answer the questions ‘Kamal, I have heard about Choutari, but I do not know much about it, and please tell me what actually it is.’ when I meet people from the rural and countrysides where internet or information technology are still exotic or foreign matters. I talk to them as if these are everyday activities, and I get more excited when I come to know about their involvement (though relatively slow) in these matters. This normally happens upon my second visit or I come to know about this on phone, or when I get a request, ‘Kamal, please subscribe me the yahoo-groups of NELTA, so I will know about Choutari.’ Naïve they are, but they have kept themselves in the smooth move of ELT.

These are the exciting stories that I have collected from the branches over my visits. Recently, I have visited Dailekh, Rautahat, Ramechhap, and I am visiting Nawalparasi, and I am sure that I am collecting similar stories from the friends in that region. Like in other branches, after participating in the session particularly on ‘NELTA Choutari’, they will visit me and express their inner desire to be the part of Choutari. The obsession to be the part of Choutari is the stimulus for us that they need to be pushed, pulled or encouraged to be the part of wider world through Choutari, no matter what formal text they prepare. Their reflection is all that takes them to the world of ‘High’, which gradually will influence their students. This is one of the unannounced fundamental objectives of all teachers and definitely of Choutari.

Knowing the principle of creating a creative text, a poetic one, Mr Gopal Basyal from Palpa engages his students and endeavors to transform the participants into poets. He deliberates in his reflection how everybody can write poems. This gives the flavor to the readers that the creativity is a common phenomenon to all the learners. He, thus, proves that we all are poets.

Moving further, Mr Ashok Sapkota deliberates that the teachers in the modern world should not feel alienated as there are unlimited sources available mainly because of internet. As a Choutari editor, I request all the teachers to be the part of global world and share the wider information with those who do not have the access to net. And, thus, be a mentor to the society, which is the part of your responsibility.
Being a mentor is a part of professional development. There are other aspects of professional development. Mr Madhukar KC discusses the values of observation in Teacher Development. It is a requirement that a teacher needs to undergo the process of being observed which may show you the unidentified challenges, and this is helpful to grow yourself as a better teacher.

In the meantime, becoming a better teacher is further possible through being a part of wider professional network like NELTA, which organizes professional gatherings at local, national and international levels. These ideas are expressed by Mr Ganesh Shrestha and Mr Ashok Raj Khati in ‘ELT in Rural Context: Growing through Professional Networks’.

The modern world is marked by the feature of interdisciplinary, which is one of the basics for everyone to be the part of modern professionalism. Mr Hem Kafley’s reflection comes up with the idea of ‘intuition and imagination know no disciplinary boundaries’.

So, here is the list of ELT khurak for the month:

    1. Observation as a Key Concept for Teacher Development, by Madhukar KC
    2. Disciplinary Bias, Interdisciplinary Benignity, by Hem Raj Kafle
    3. Everyone can Write Poems: A Reflection, by Gopal Prasad Bashyal
    4. How to Use Newspaper in ELT, by Praveen Kumar Yadav
    5. Bringing Technology to EFL Classroom: The World Wide Web, by Ashok Sapkota
    6. ELT in Rural Context: Growing through Professional Networks (A Brief Report of Branch Conference), by Ashok Raj Khati & Ganesh Shrestha

Finally, Dear readers, I would like to request you to proceed with remarkable feedbacks and comments, which will push the editors to collect more reflections and articles from varied sources, and thus make the Choutari full of required diversity.

Cheers Choutari!

On behalf of Choutari team:
Kamal Poudel

Observation as a Key Concept for Teacher Development

-Madhukar KC
Abstract
This article begins with the general introduction of observation highlighting on observation with reference to teacher development. It draws some examples to justify how (classroom) observation plays a pivotal role in teacher development in terms of developmental purpose of observation rather than observation for assessment, evaluation and training. Finally it relates observation practice in Nepalese EFL context along with author’s own experience of classroom observations of the teachers at the work place.
Introduction
Generally, the term ‘observation’ is used as a research tool that offers a researcher an opportunity to garner ‘live’ data from “naturally occurring situations” where the researcher can actually look at directly what is happening in situ rather than depending on second-hand data source (Cohen et al 2007). Peter Maingay, the ELT expert/trainer argues about various roles of observation for training, development and assessment of the teachers. Observation in the recent years has been rigorously used in the field of teacher development. Different people especially teachers, supervisors, instructors, trainers, and trainees use observation for various purposes in various forms like classroom observation, peer observation, a key tool of teacher development. Wajnryb (2002) states observation as ‘a multi-faceted tool for learning which can be learned and can improve with practice’ (p.1). There are various kinds of observations, however, this article concentrates on classroom observation in the context of teacher’s professional development.
Observation and Teacher Development (TD)
The concept of development refers to change and growth. To be specific, the term teacher development is the process of being better, competent and ‘super-teacher’ in terms of professionalism. This concept of teacher development is a significant issue in teacher education that came into prominence in the field of ELT on account of the demand; especially of in-service teachers who really wanted to get input of recent methodologies/pedagogies to tackle the problems and the challenges that come abruptly on the way. TD is a relentless process of life-long learning. If it stops for any reasons, then the process of development ceases with no sign of any professional development in teachers.
There are many components and strategies that are responsible for teacher development; such as observation, action research, in-service training, supervision, counseling, meditation, motivation, mentoring, reflective practice of teaching and learning, classroom research, collaborative learning and teaching etc. However, this article focuses on area of teacher development that is classroom observation, which has been dominantly used as a significant tool in ESL/EFL teacher education in general and teachers’ professional development in particular. Observation in general is a tool/concept used in any kind of observation- be it a classroom observation, peer observation, supervisor, ELT manager observation or a learner observation. It is equally significant tool for mentoring, collaborative development, classroom research ,etc.

Classroom Observation
As one of the prevailing methods within the real classroom settings, classroom observation is a significant tool for teacher development where the teacher develops by observing the trainers, peer teachers classroom teachings. It is the process of studying classroom activities to scrutinize teaching strategies adopted by the teachers and students’ participation with active responsiveness in classroom activities. It is a process in which a supervisor, instructor/administrator (head teacher/principal) sits in on one or more class sessions, records the teacher’s teaching practices and student actions, and then meets with the teacher to discuss regarding the observations done previously.
English language teaching (ELT) classroom observations have traditionally been seen as part of teacher evaluation regarding their way of classroom teaching and observers are typically administrators, instructors, supervisors, trainers, ELT managers hired and senior teachers. Feedback provided by the observer to the observe after the observation task is over is what Sheal (1989) notes as usually unsystematic, subjective, threatening, frustrating and impressionistic rather than objective, systematic, supportive and motivating. Also, the relationship between observers and observees is based on hierarchy where the observers are evaluative, prescriptive, assertive while the observees, unless otherwise, are defensive. Classroom observations tasks done under such conditions might not help much in the observees’ professional growth and development which is in sharp contrast to the philosophy of teachers’ professional development.
Why classroom observation?
There are a number of different purposes for classroom observation. Nevertheless, the primary purpose of observation is for teacher’s professional growth and development. While the teacher teaches in the language classroom, he/she will not be able to clearly observe the process of learning and interaction as it takes place throughout the lesson. Thus classroom observation renders freedom to the teachers to look at the lesson being taught by other teachers from a range of different perspective outside that of the actual lesson plan, procedures and activities prepared by the teacher. Wajnryb (2002) defines classroom observation as a ‘multi-faceted tool for learning. It is about being an observer in the language learning classroom and learning from the observation process of classroom processes’ (p.1).
Classroom observation helps us ‘to test our personal theories on phenomena around us and refine the social and psychological behavior of others and ourselves’ (Foster, 1996, p. 57). Classroom observation is absolutely required ‘to understand and be aware of the intricacies of the social and psychological processes of the classroom which is central to effective teacher development (Wright, 1990, p. 84). Similarly, Maingay (1991) defines classroom observation as a reflective tool for the teachers to explore their own behavior, attitude and their classroom practices. Kafle (2001) argues that mentoring, one of the key concepts in teacher development requires skills of classroom observation so as to figure out problems of classroom teaching practice of the teachers and provide feedback and eventually render assistance whenever needed by the teachers.
Procedures of classroom observation
There are various procedures of conducting classroom observation. Sheal (1989) gives his own way of conducting classroom observation. Mainly he concentrates on classroom observation for teacher development rather than teacher evaluation. With the purposes of observation, he also came up with the observation forms. They are; frequency tabulation, structured description, checklist and rating scale etc. Among them, using observation checklist during observation is pertinent to our Nepalese context.
Reflection
Fortunately, I got an appointment as an Instructional Supervisor (IS) in one of the prominent schools in the Kathmandu Valley. My job responsibility was not just to teach in the classroom but to conduct classroom observation of the teachers from primary to lower secondary English teachers. The teachers I worked with were trained, competent and skilful. However, I was supposed to manage spare time to sit and discuss with them about the lesson, unit they were about to deal with in the class and later observe their real classroom teaching to see how well they would perform in the classroom and whether they conducted various activities in the classroom with regard to ‘Activity-based Instruction classroom teaching’ implemented in the very school recently. The school administration had given me full liability to conduct classroom observation of the teachers. The administration including myself had also clearly oriented the teachers during the workshop before the early beginning of the new session regarding the observation to be taken by the newly appointed Instructional Supervisors. Since it was mainly for the developmental purpose of observation, most of the teachers took it positively. However, there was some sort of indirect resistance of silence, ignorance towards it which I could sense at the meantime.
Keeping in mind the resistance of the teachers I would observe, I tried my best endeavors to maintain good rapport with them. I used to manage spare time out of their (teachers) hectic classroom schedule so that I could sit with them and discuss for sometime regarding their lesson plan, teaching/learning materials prepared to use in the classroom and teaching/learning activities to be conducted in the classroom. Mainly I used observation format to observe the teachers’ classroom which is divided in to three phases, which is deliberated below:
Pre-observation
During this pre-observation phase, my main intention was to inform the observee teacher about the purpose of the meeting and observation and thus prepare him/her for being observed without any sign of resistance. I also used this phase to build good rapport by using motivational orientation to the teacher saying, ‘it is mainly for both of us and our professional development’. I expressed, ‘there is nothing personal but it’s all about professional development to make sure that the teachers are in the state of welcoming me as the observer of their classroom teaching’.
During the meeting with the teachers in this phase, I used to discuss on the lesson plan they had, teaching/learning materials prepared to use and the teaching/learning activities to be used in the classroom teaching. I used to elicit information about the syllabus, other classroom activities they had been conducting from the teachers. I also asked them if they wanted any sort of help from me, e.g., getting other resources to use as materials in their classroom teaching.
While/during observation
This is the second phase of observation which I used to use for my classroom observation purpose. During this stage or phase, I observed the real classroom teaching of the teacher inside the classroom settings according to their lesson plan using teaching materials/aids and conducting various activities in the classroom. During this phase, I mainly concentrated on classroom management, instructions of the teacher, language use, lesson delivery, activities conducted and the participation of the students in the activities and tasks. I recorded the classroom observation and wrote a reflection of the class I observed so that it would be easier for me to use during feedback session.
Post-observation
It is the phase of feedback session. During this phase, I managed some time to meet with the teachers to discuss how the classroom went, how he/she felt about the classroom teaching, what he/she felt went well, what he/she would have to change, what was typical or atypical about the class. I would mainly elicit responses from the observee teachers and would give them cathartic and supportive kind of feedback. I would discuss on the strategy for the next class. The purpose of this phase is to review the observation data and plan any follow-up and new strategy as required.

Conclusion
Observation is a means through which teacher development takes place and thus it is very significant tool or a key concept for teacher development. Unlike observation for training, assessment and evaluation, observation for development of both the observer and the observee should be primarily focused to achieve the objective of teacher development. It provides both the parties with the reflection of their own class and provides them way to think of some possible innovative strategies to implement them in the classes further. Traditionally, the observation task was taken as evaluative, assessment as mere trainer process. Owing to this, teachers to be observed (observee) and the observer both had developed negative attitudes towards observation process. However, now, positive attitudes have developed among the educators, teachers regarding observation in the recent days for teacher development. People related to teacher education, ELT have duly realized the significance of observation and the impossibility of teacher development without observation to explore their hidden self, identity, creative potentiality which is worth appreciating.
References
Chaudhary, D.L. (2008). Reflection for key concept for Teacher Development. Journal of
NELTA, Volume 13, No. 1-2
Cohen, et, al (2007). Research Methods in Education. Rout ledge
Edge, J. (1991). Co-operative Development
Head, K. and Taylor, P. (1997). Readings in teacher development. Oxford: Heinemann.

Tsai, H. M. (2008). Improving an EFL Class: Starting from Classroom Observations, The Asian EFL Journal, June/2008, Volume 10, Number 2

Sheal, P. (1989). Classroom observation: Training the observers. ELT Journal, 43(2), 92-
104 Corwin, S. (2011). Teacher Observation. IATEFL Voices, 2011 Issue, 220
Wajnryb, R. (2002). Classroom observation tasks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Appendix
The following is the sample of the observation checklist form I used for classroom observation of the teachers at ‘The Excelsior School, Swoyambhunath’ where I worked as an Instructional Supervisor (IS) of English.
Pre- observation
Lesson plan/objectives Use of teaching/learning materials

Teaching/learning activities

While/during observation
Activities conducted Classroom management

Language use/ lesson delivery

Post-observation
Reflection on the very observed class by the observer and observee
Providing feedback (Oral/written)
Constructive/supportive feedback

Strategies/plan for next class

These are the various samples I and my intern pair, Mabindra prepared during our fourth semester class on ‘Teacher Development’ at Kathmandu University which I would like to illustrate as below;
Observation checklist form
Name: Topic: Date:
S N. Indicators 0 1 2
1
Classroom management
2
T/L materials used and Activities conducted in the class
3
Presentation of subject matter/issues/themes
4 Clarity of instructions

5
Pedagogical methods used/ language use
6
Delivery of the lesson

7 Student’s involvement/participation/motivation

8 Body language

9 Personal Reflection

10 Providing feedback (Oral/written)
Constructive/supportive feedback
0= Needs improvement 1= Satisfactory
2= excellent
Note: Comment:
1 1
2 2
3 3
4 4
Observer:

Observation form for creative writing
Name of the teacher:
Name of the school:
Class:
Date:
Duration:
Phase Activities
Initial
Example
Explanation
Production

Observer:

Observation form for checking speaking skill
Name of the teacher:
Name of the school:
Class:
Date:
Duration:
How does the teacher check speaking skill of the students? What specific aspects does he check? e.g. grammar, syntax, comprehension, etc. Does he give feedback? It can be immediate or delayed, individual or to the whole class

Observer:
Observation form for Reading Activity
Name of the teacher:
Name of the school:
Class:
Date:
Duration:
Learner Activity Teacher response Learner response Evaluation method

Observer:

Checking effectiveness of listening activity
Name of the teacher:
Name of the school:
Class:
Date:
Duration:

1. The component that you feel was very effective while teaching listening activity
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. The area where you feel that the teacher could have improved by using suggested methods or approaches
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

3. Further suggestions that you would like to give the teacher regarding the class
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………

Everyone can Write Poems: A Reflection

-Gopal Prasad Bashyal
When students are inspired to write, they can produce texts beyond expectation. They need motivation and scaffolding – qualities which foster the scope of imagination and develop characteristics of an honest writer. As the metal-worker transfers the iron into desired tools with fire, anvil and hammer, a writer uses his intellect, imagination, passion, vocation and energy for the perpetual refinement of unformed mass of words to the expression of harmonious fusion of dispersed thoughts, feelings and emotions. “Writers are born and made” (Morley, 2010, p.1). I learnt this during facilitation of one day workshop on creative writing for Bachelor level students organized by NELTA Palpa last month.
The workshop started with introduction. I’m Gopal from Nepal. After two minutes’ thinking, I’m Ravi, studying is my hobby, a student said. Likewise I’m Jyoti, I like wearing dhoti. All 40 participants, including 7 teachers, produced two lines rhyming with their first name. This sounds a very simple exercise that made everyone happy as they developed a little hope to write poems. First, I discussed a few opinions of great poets. For example, “Linguistic creativity is not simply a property of exceptional people, but the exceptional property of all people.” – Ron Carter’s statement encouraged all the participants to take part in the workshop optimistically. Second, the differences between expository writing and creative writing helped them to understand writing much clearly. Expository writing is instrumental, factual, externally controlled, full of conventions, logical, analytical, impersonal and concerned with intellect whereas creative writing is aesthetic, imaginative, internally guided by stretched rules, intuitive, associative, personal, full of multiple meanings and concerned with both intellect and senses. Third linguistic devices like i. Simile, metaphor, ii. Personification, iii. Alliteration, assonance, iv. Rhyme and rhythm, v. Parallelism, vi. Repetition, vii. Unusual collocation and viii. Striking word choices were discussed. Mostly, students were introduced sample poems and linguistic and literary features used in them were analyzed with examples. A few sample exercises are discussed below.
i. How creative are you? I’m creative. The students are given objects like stone, wooden piece, piece of paper, stalk etc. They think how many ways they can use the object for and write. They do it in a minute. One who finds more uses is more creative. One student found 13 uses of stone. Though this is not competition, not the IQ test either, it helps them think from different perspectives.
ii. Haiku: This is a three line poem. It contains five syllables, seven syllables and five syllables in the first, the second and the third line respectively. For practice, the first two lines are given by the teacher and the third line is completed by the students. Gradually, they make second line and the complete haiku and haikus. For example: Waiting in the darkness An aged blind man sitting To marry the moon (Gopal)
iii. Parallel poems: The teacher gives a model poem and the students write another poem in similar form/structure but with different tone or on different topics or themes. The themes can be marriage, love, study, education, job or position, workplace etc. I gave a model poem on marriage with negative tone and asked the students to write with positive tone.
Sample poem
Marriage A mistake Everything went wrong Too late Now.
Students’ poems
Marriage A life Everything with joy Too fantastic Now. (Nabin)
Marriage A gift Bond to make life Memory Now. (Sadiksha)
Marriage A journey Towards happiness A suspense Now. (Shanti)
Marriage A dream Of happy life With wife But children Now. (Sangeeta)
Marriage A drama Everyone enjoys Each other Now. (Ranju)
Marriage Hope Love wins Both lose Children win Now. (Bishnu)
Marriage A journey To continue generations Too short Now. (Gopal)
iv. Diamond poem: The name is given after its shape. This is a five line poem. The first line contains the title of the poem. The second line has two adjectives which define the noun in the title line. The third line contains three gerunds which describe the manner or behaviour and the fourth line is a clause and the line has a word that is synonym or antonym or describing the topic word with an effective punch.
Teacher grey, bald-headed striking, striving, smiling enhances humanity for the better world a Creator. (Gopal)
Friend courageous, helpful sharing, pairing, visiting loves studying English Co-worker. (Prakash)
Mother affectionate, compassionate bearing, caring, rearing devotes life to others Selfless (Bikram)
Husband lovely, kind helping, working, understanding looks always beautiful Doubtful (Indira)
Teacher intelligent, dutiful controlling, inspiring wonderful educational job a Tutor (Dam)
v. Metaphor poem: This has three major steps which are as below.
a. First two columns of words are given. For example: hope a spoon life a knife marriage an egg love a brush anger a widow disappointment a mirror work a plate happiness a rope work a plate time a wheel b. Match. For example: life – a mirror, marriage – a knife.
c. Then add clause. For example: Life is a mirror you can reflect on. Marriage is a knife that cuts your singleness. Hope is a spoon that feeds us to survive. Anger is the knife that cuts our life. Happiness is an egg that broods new one. Hate is a knife that cuts relations. Marriage is the wheel that helps to continue generations. Work is a cup that serves life. Love is a wheel that runs life. Time is a wheel that keeps moving. Love is a rope that ties relations. Disappointment is a knife that cuts hope. Life is a mirror that grows through experience. (Contributors: Ravi, Sangita, Durga, Shanti, Nabin, Sadiksha, Dam, Kaushila, Bigyan, Indira, Biju, Ashish)
vi. Hello poem: Each line starts with a hello phrase and ends with a goodbye phrase. These two phrases contain opposite ideas. For example: Hello holiday, goodbye school. Hello girlfriend, goodbye wife. Hello cigarette, goodbye life. Hello mobile, goodbye landline. Hello pop song, goodbye folk song. (Contributors: Subash, Asmita, Pim, Prakash Chandra, Shrawan, Bhima, Gita)
Reflection: During the workshop the students enjoyed reciting their creative works. They were striving hard to find appropriate and new words. Though sometimes many of them wrote poems with tragic note, their willingness to follow the given structure was really exciting. They have problems in selection of appropriate words and fulfill ambition of making a complex sentence. They realised that complex writing is not creative writing. Creative writing flows freely without any extra ornamentation. If the words are put into proper structure, they can convey message effectively. Commonly used words if used at proper place according to the pattern set for particular design can express feelings well. Moreover, the structured use of language helps to convey feelings full. Likewise the students learn to use the language skills appropriately. They recall vocabulary, deliberately violate rules but in rules and these exercises develop confidence in using language. The workshop was thus concluded with the message that everyone can write poems.
Reference
Bashyal, G. P. (2011). ELT handbook. Palpa: Jaya Prakashan.
Marley, A. Mukundan, J. and Rai, V. S. (2009). Life in Words and Words in Life. Kathmandu: Bhudipuran Pubications.
Morley, D. (2010). Creative Writing. New Delhi: Cambridge University Press.

Bringing Technology to EFL Classroom: World Wide Web (www)

-Ashok Sapkota
Abstract
This article tries to explore about the global use of internet in the language classroom highlighting several solutions to it. It tries to explain how the global use of World Wide Web is useful to connect with the interest of our learners by enhancing the professional development of English language teachers. It provides various examples of web addresses followed by their short annotated descriptions. It also suggests some practical solutions to browse and save those contents on our computers.
Key Words: internet, blog, browsers, on-line, information technology

Introduction
English language is regarded as one of the most widely used means of human communication under the sun. It has been in use in almost all fields of human life. English language teaching methodology is influenced as much by linguistic theories as by advances in science and technology. Sophisticated computers, multimedia computers and word processors have virtually contributed a lot for actual practice of language teaching.
Due to the rapid growth and expansion of information and communication technology (ICT), the world is becoming smaller and smaller. This is why; we can view the world with a single click of a mouse. This characteristic of information technology facilitates English language teaching through the use of computers. The learners can get a variety of opportunities to brush up themselves in various skills and aspects of the English language just staying at home. Regarding listening, students may get maximum opportunity to listen input at the computers with appropriate comprehension questions, easily controlled repetition and immediate playback. They can hear the rhythms and accents of the language as spoken by native speakers. Regarding speaking, a speaking recognition technology is adopted to permit the shy students to speak up. Voice and video e-mail play an important role in the design of speaking activities. Likewise, reading, skill programmes are used to enhance reading speed by paced reading activities. Jigsaw paragraphs or jumbled texts can be used to enhance reading in which limited time in provided to read the text just after the time limit the text-lines scroll. Regarding writing, word processing has maximum impact on the pre-set writing habit of the learners.
Hence, as an obedient tool, the language teacher has this machine to teach all four aspects of language effectively. A computer has very important role in the provision of exposure to target language environment to learners; and to motivate them towards learning materials. It is, therefore, regarded as an aid for teaching English.
Use of Internet
The internet has become a chain of a huge network of connected computers, linked across the globe. The World Wide Web (www) is the part of the internet where information can be accessed. It contains ever expanding number of pages which we navigate by using web browsers such as internet explorer, Mozilla, Netscape, Safari, or Google’s chrome. Email, as a part of internet, is a means of communication rather than accessing information. Internet offers many opportunities for students and teachers to compose materials other than using paper-pencil works. We teachers or our students largely depend on the hard copy materials, such as books, teachers’ note, etc. In this regard, internet provides a diverse form to the pedagogical orientation than the traditional practices. For Lewis (2009,) some advantages so using the World Wide Web in our classrooms.
The internet provides authentic content: students and teachers get limitless ‘real’ content in the target language. They can read a real menu, find out when a train leaves Paddington station; listen to a sports broadcast, or watch a movie trailer. The internet can complement your course book by bringing language learning to life. Let’s not forget that the internet also provides teachers with lesson plans, ideas banks, test generators, and pretty much anything else you would want to know as a teacher.
The internet offers meaningful language: Studies have shown that students learn language better when the language they are exposed to is meaningful. The internet creates contexts for language use which, through their authenticity, become purposeful in the eyes of the students. The students actively manipulate the language for a clear and logical purpose.
The internet promotes critical thinking skills and ‘constructivist’ learning: On the internet, knowledge is transient. Unlike course books which transmit information in a predictable order, working with the internet is constantly evolving. Students make choices and ‘construct’ knowledge every time they go online. Each search is unique.
The internet reduces focus on the teacher: Working with the internet can take the focus off you and shift communication from teacher-student to student- student. It you are a bit unsure of your own English-language skills, authentic listening and reading from the internet can help model the language you want to teach.
Internet-based work can increase motivation: It is colorful, exciting, and undeniably ‘cool’. Computers and the internet are a key component of youth culture and lend language learning street-credibility.
Students can be benefitted largely by the use of internet network. They can also be involved in chatting online. They can be able to their own first language such as our Nepali language and can chat in English as well. Teachers can organize real time chatting events by using programs like: Google talk or MSN or Yahoo Messenger or face book. It is also easy to set up a chain of network such as groups where people can exchange messages with each other, such as Yahoo groups. Many dictionaries are freely available by the help of internet. One of the potent ways of sharing the people about your creative ideas is the weblog or blog. This is like a public diary that anyone can see or you can design yourself for institutional purpose. It is free of cost. It helps you to tell others what you want to share and get constructive feedback on it. Blogging is not difficult and there are many websites that can help you to create your own personal such as: www.blogger.com

Web Search
Browsing the web is the door to the World Wide Web. When we browse the website, web browsers read html code they receive from a website. The code tells the browser to display the information on our computer. If we have this plug- in our computer, it will immediately open it and display the requested content. If it is not available on our computer, we need to download the plug-in from the World Wide Web. Some of the plug-in that are essential to be installed in our computer are:
Media players (such as real player, windows media player, or quick time) allow us to play video and audio files.
Adobe acrobat allows us to display documents formatted as PDFS (files which can be read without a word processing programme)
Flash and shockwave allow us to open web animation files.
Java is a programming system of language which can be used across multiple computer platforms, making it very practical.
In the recent times, there are a number of web browsers available to download free from the World Wide Web. If a web-browser is your gateway to the internet, a search engine is our guide to contents. When we know the URL (Web address) of each site which we wanted to visit, these remains no need of search engine. When we click a simple topic, these appear 100 million websites and 85 million individual web pages displayed on our computer screen. In this mis confusion among the people, e-programmers have created search engines in order to help people to find their way around the internet, ‘Google search’ has become a common search engine, in the today’s world, Like wise ‘yahoo search’ etc. The world has become so much narrower with the help of computer search engines. People create their own personal blogs, web-pages, business sites, job-sites with the help of internet sources.
Web-search engines or e-sources has become a successful means of collecting, sharing our feelings, knowledge, and researches. The trend of online study, face to face chat, and online discussion has become a popular concept in the globe today. Here, I have tried to mention some important URL (Web address) which could be largely useful for English language teachers to derive their professional goals in connection to e-world and helpful to bring the technology into the classroom.
GENERAL WEBSITES
Many (but not all) of these websites have interactive activities which you can use in your schools if there is a computer room or you can recommend to students to access the activities at home.
http://www.britishcouncil.org/learnenglish
http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/
http://www.teachers.tv/
http://www.onestopenglish.com/
http://www.johnsesl.com/
http://caslt.org/resources/general/program-support-clip-art_en.php
http://www.oup.com/elt/teachersclub/?cc=gb
http://www.resourceroom.net/
http://www.oxfam.org.uk/education/resources/water_for_all/
http://www.globalgateway.org.uk/

GRAMMAR WEBSITES
http://www.britishcouncil.org/learnenglish-central-grammar-archive.htm
http://www.grammarforteachers.co.uk/
http://www.usingenglish.com/handouts/index.php
http://www.englishpage.com/
http://www.world-english.org/

SPEAKING and PRONUNCIATION WEBSITES
http://mylanguageexchange.com/
http://www.anglik.net/
http://www.fonetiks.org/
http://www.fonetiks.org/spokenenglish/
http://www.btinternet.com/~eptotd/vm/vowelmachine/vowelmachine.htm
http://www.alt-usage-english.org/audio_archive.shtml

LISTENING WEBSITES
http://www.elllo.org/
http://www.britishcouncil.org/learnenglish-central-songs-homepage.htm
http://www.englishlistening.com/
http://www.podcastsinenglish.com/
http://www.videojug.com/

READING, SHORT STORIES and LITERATURE WEBSITES
http://www.link2english.com/teacher_index_top.asp
http://www.britishcouncil.org/kids-stories.htm
www.eastoftheweb.com/short-stories/indexframe.html www.channel4.com/learning/microsites/B/bookbox/home.htm:
www.teachit.co.uk/index.asp www.wingedsandals.com/
www.aesopfables.com/ www.darsie.net/talesofwonder/ www.andersenfairytales.com/en/main www.jkrowling.com/
www.scholastic.com/harrypotter/ www.pbs.org/mythsandheroes/
http://repeatafterus.com/index.php www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/mythology/mythology.html http://www.webenglishteacher.com/
http://www.eldrbarry.net/roos/eest.htm
http://www.penguindossiers.com/audio-frameset.asp
http://www.channel4learning.net/sites/waywithwords/main.html
http://www.dramainelt.org/
http://www.pbs.org/cgi-registry/shakespeare/shakesearch.pl
http://wiredforbooks.org/kids.htm
www.etprofessional.com/

WRITING WEBSITES
www.readwritethink.org/index.asp: www.fictionpress.com/ www.englishbiz.co.uk/index.html www.midlandit.co.uk/education/writingtips.htm www.planet.eon.net/~bplaroch/Write.html

BBC websites include:
www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks2bitesize/english/writing.shtml
www.bbc.co.uk/blast/writing/ www.bbc.co.uk/writersroom/

GAMES WEBSITES
http://www.english-at-home.com/
http://puzzlemaker.discoveryeducation.com/
YOUNG LEARNER WEBSITES
http://www.britishcouncil.org/kids
http://www.learnenglish.org.uk/
http://www.dotolearn.com/
http://www.show.me.uk/
http://www.primaryresources.co.uk/english/english.htm
http://www.enchantedlearning.com/Home.html
http://www.starfall.com/n/level-c/index/play.htm?f
http://www.exploratorium.edu/
The Exploratorium Museum
http://wiredforbooks.org/kids.htm

Study Skills, Reference Resources, and Research Strategies
Dictionary and Thesaurus Resources
Cobuild
http://titania.cobuild.collins.co.uk/index.html
Merriam-Webster
http://www.m-w.com/dictionary.htm
Roget’s Thesaurus
http://www.bartleby.com/62/
Your Dictionary, A Global Language Resource
http://www.yourdictionary.com/
Encyclopedia Resources
Britannica
http://www.britannica.com/
Columbia Encyclopedia, from Bartleby
http://www.bartleby.com/65/
Encarta
http://encarta.msn.com/
Encyclopedia.com
http://www.encyclopedia.com/
Helpful Study Skill Links
http://www.stthomas.edu/academicsupport/helpful_study_skills_links.htm
Advice on time management, test taking, note taking, and much more.
Journals and Magazines
English Teaching Forum (ETF) Online
http://exchanges.state.gov/forum/
Forum Electronic Journals
http://exchanges.state.gov/forum/journal/
Language and Civil Society
http://exchanges.state.gov/forum/journal/intro.htm
Language and Life Sciences
http://exchanges.state.gov/forum/journal/llsintro.htm

Once you have added a basic structure (or, URL address) to your bookmarks, you can save in your computer. You can read it on your leisure period. Lewis (ibid, p.49) provides some procedure to organize our book marks:
• Open a search engine and search for two or three websites that you particularly like or that interest you.
• Bookmark the sites (add them to your favorites), then create two folders by clicking on the favorites menu.
• Click ‘organize favorites’/ ‘create folders’.
• Name the folders to reflect the content of the websites you selected.
• Select one of the websites you added, by left-clicking on the title with your mouse.
• While still holding down the mouse drag the favourite to one of the folders you created and release the mouse.
• Do the same for the other favorites you created.
• If you like, open one of the folders, select a link as above and drag it from its current folder to another folder on your favorites list. In this way you can reorganize your favourites according to your needs.
By the stages mentioned above we can easily save the selected documents in our computers. In the leisure period we can read those selected articles whenever we feel necessary.
Conclusion
The use internet in this e-world and e-classroom has occupied a greater space not only in the pedagogical orientation but also in the minds of many learners. Well, all e-materials may not be so authentic as we have speculated. It is us to verify whether internet site is authentic, valid, reliable or updated. If we can verify these matters we can occupy our in own space o in this global IT era to make us professionally equipped.

Suggestions for Further Reading
Bhattarai , G.R. and Gautam, G.R. 2005. English language teachers at the cross roads: The journal of NELTA Vol.10 No. 1&2, Nepal English Language Teachers Association.
Dudeney, G.2000 The internet and the language classroom, CUP, London
Harmer, J. 2010. The practice of the English language teaching, Person Longman
Lewis, G. 2010. Bringing technology into the Classroom. OUP, London.

ELT in Rural Context: Growing through Professional Networks (A Brief Report of Branch Conference)

-Ashok Raj Khati
-Ganesh Shrestha

Abstract:
The title itself is the theme of the branch conference of NELTA in Ramechhap held on 21st and 22nd September 2012. More than two hundred fifty English language teachers attended the conference from this region. The conference made the ELT professionals meet at a platform once again in the mid-eastern hill of Nepal. The conference attendees shared their experiences and challenges in teaching English as foreign language and excitements with other participants and presenters. This is a brief account of a two days event.

Introduction
The two-day conference and training program was a significant get together of EFL (English as Foreign Language) teachers in Manthali. The teachers from Sindhuli, Dolakha and Okhaldhunga also attended at the program. Majority of the participants travelled for two days to attend the branch conference of NELTA Ramechhap in Manthali. NELTA Ramechhap had decided to hold this event particularly to energize the NELTA members and English teachers of this region to expand the NELTA networks and generate discussions on how a teacher from hinterlands of the country grow professionally through professional networks.
Inaugural
The inaugural ceremony was chaired by Mr. Tanka Prasad Dahal, the chair of NELTA Ramechhap, and Mr. Hemanta Raj Dahal, President, NELTA Centre was the chief guest. There was the gracious presence of Mr. Narayan Mainali, Local Development Officer Ramechhap, Mr. Yubaraj Poudel, District Education Officer Ramechhap, Mr. Damodar Regmi, Department of Education, MOE, Mr. Kamal Poudel, General Secretary, Ms. Motikal Subba Dewan, Ms. Madhu Neupane and Mr. Ashok Raj Khati from NELTA Centre, heads of different governmental and non-governmental organizations, representatives from various publications, campus chiefs and head teachers. Mr. Hemanta Raj Dahal, President, NELTA Centre and Mr. Narayan Mainali, Local Development Officer/Chair of District Education Committee jointly inaugurated the conference in the presence of 250 English language teachers/professionals/practitioners at DDC hall in Manthali. Mr. Chandra Singh Dhami, one of the founding members of this branch, welcomed the guests and participants by making special recall of its initial days. Mr. Nanendra Singh Dhami recalled the hardworking members and NELTA activities on its initial days.
On the occasion, Mr. Hemant Raj Dahal elaborated the theme on the first day sharing a lot of examples of himself on how he grew at this level of professionalism. He highlighted the importance of teachers’ professional networks to grow and update professionally. Further, he explained on how NELTA is working in the field of teacher development in collaboration with government of Nepal and other national and international agencies. At the end of his remark, he mentioned the future directions of NELTA including the building of resource centre in Kathmandu.

Mr. Kamal Poudel also made remark on the prominent role of professional networks and supporting role of NELTA to enhance professionalism among its members and non-members. DEO, Yubraj Poudel expressed his pleasure being a part of this event and thanked NELTA branch Ramechhap for holding a two-day branch conference. He promised to support NELTA in the days to come and requested NELTA Ramechhap to come with plan to improve the performance of students in English at 10th grade for collaboration. Mr. Damodar Regmi from Department of Education, MOE and Mr. Gunja Bahadur Shrestha, Campus Chief of Manthali Sahid Smriti Multiple Campus, also thanked NELTARamechhap for organizing the branch conference and highlighted the importance of conference.
At the inaugural ceremony, Mr. Lambodar Ghimire, the chair of Shuvaramva Publication handed over a computer to Mr. Tanka Prasad Dahal, the chair of NELTA Ramechhap and expressed that he wanted to see more collaborations with NELTA in the days to come. On the occasion, Mr. Ashok Raj Khati, central committee member and former chair of NELTA Ramchhap, shared the experiences of working in NELTA in rural context and appreciated various contributors of this branch.
Mr. Hemant Raj Dhahal offered the letter of appreciation to special contributors from different institutions who contributed to establish NELTA Ramechhap branch. Mr. Ganesh Shrestha, an executive member of NELTA Ramechhap branch, expressed vote of thanks to chief guest, guests, all the participants, contributors, on behalf of NELTA Ramechhap, who had extended their hands to make the event happen and made an appeal to all be unified under the umbrella of NELTA to develop the professionalism. Mr. Tanka Prasad Dahal, the chair of the programme and the president of NELTA Ramechhap branch, expressed his pleasure for the remarkable attendance of the participants and for their enthusiasm.
Training Sessions
Ms. Motikala Subba Dewan, central committee member, presented a session on “Creating Short Stories from Everyday Life”. Her presentation made participants think practically to produce short stories from everyday events. She demonstrated many real incidents through short stories of real interest. All the participants enjoyed and felt its relevance to make the classroom learning lively and full of creativity.
Mr. Kamal Poudel gave a session on, “From Recipients to Initiators and Players: Transforming EFL Classrooms into playgrounds”. He focused on the failure of traditional teaching strategies in Nepalese contexts where most English classes end up with teachers’ one-way instructions, and learners are left as bored recipients. The workshop focused on EFL games and activities which enable the learners to hold the roles of initiators and use L2 with fun while playing locally relevant and context bound games, and thus improve L2 innately being motivated intrinsically. He shared various activities to make the classroom live.
Mr. Hemanta Raj Dahal presented some practical tips in ELT. He particularly focused on assigning tasks to the students to make English language learning meaningful. His emphasis was on creating authenticity in EFL classroom. Further, he made the participants involve in various activities during the workshop.
2nd Day: Training Sessions
On the second day, Ms. Madhu Neupane Bastola, central committee member, gave the first presentation on “Promoting classroom interaction using cooperative learning” with special focus on maximizing student talking time and minimizing teachers talking time. The presentation focused on the elements and benefits of cooperative learning. She activated the participants involving in many activities like Four Corners, KWL, JIGSAW, Debate, Panel Discussions, One Sentence Story and Interactive Reading to promote collaboration in learning in the classroom.
The second session was followed by the workshop of Mr. Kamal Poudel, on “EFL songs and stories for young learners”. He stressed on the issue that teaching L2 to young learners is a daunting task in Nepalese contexts. In this light, he suggested that a teacher could exploit locally tuned L1songs to enhance their L2 motivation, which are enjoyable too. With the support of context-bound pictures, local melody, and L2 activities, the teachers can make their classes instrumental for learners to emulate their target language. He made the session lively and enjoyable by making the participants sing the EFL songs in melody of Nepali folk songs like Resham Phiriri.
Mr. Ashok Raj Khati, central committee member, briefly shared about his experience on teaching reading texts, particularly, advertisements at tenth grade. He generated interaction among the participants on the experiences of teaching English and preparing students for SLC examination to perform better in the written test.
Closing
There was the gracious presence of various dignitaries in the closing ceremony. Mr. Hemant Kumar Budhathoki, the under-secretary, District Education Office Ramechhap, was the special guest who expressed his pleasure on the entire effort of NELTA members and English teachers of this region to enhance professionalism. Further, he made the remarks that the conference had given a great message to foster the professionalism.
Mr. Kamal Poudel, General Secretary, expressed his pleasure for the overwhelming responses of the participants to the event. He mentioned that the event was remarkable particularly to expand the NELTA networks and to learn from each other.
Ms. Madhu Neupane conveyed the message that this type of platform was really crucial to grow professionally on the part of English Language teachers at outlaying part of the country. She found NELTA branch Ramechhap vibrant, organized and dedicated.
Similarly, Mr. Laxman Kumar Ghimire, the advisor of NELTA Ramechhap, appreciated the effort of NELTA members for holding the branch conference in Manthali. He further expected that NELTA would organize the level wise training for English teachers only after collecting the trainees’ needs.
At the end of the both days, children from various schools performed a cultural show reflecting the ethnicity of this region, mid-eastern hill of Nepal.
Participants’ Remarks
“It’s a great event of NELTA Ramechhap. The conference has increased the level of confidence on the part of English teachers. The sharing of experiences of speakers was really insightful. I was thrilled by inaugural, training sessions, closing and cultural show.” -Dinesh Kumar Shrestha, Principal, Gangalal Academy Ramechhap
“First of all, the conference made me know many English language teachers/professionals from this region. The event provided a key message to me that teaching and learning are the collaborative processes. The event is like an eye-opener for me in the sense that we need to think globally to grow professionally in our own local context. ” -Deepak Khadka, Principal, Tamakoshi English School, Manthali
“The second branch conference and training program was so systematic in terms of management related perspective. I am very glad to be a part of this event. This event made my hesitation in speaking in public remove i.e. it built up my level of confidence.” -Gauri Tamang, Teacher, Little Star Academy, Manthali
“This is the first time I have ever attended a big NELTA event. The conference made me more shared and know how others are doing. It provided me a great opportunity to know many NELTA colleagues and English teachers.” -Rajesh Thapa Magar, Teacher, Vangeri High School, Ramechhap
“I am very glad being a part of this event. I learnt how professional networks do work to produce a different outcome. I knew a lot of ELTers on this occasion. Even in this large get-together, I enjoyed the interactions and discussions during the training sessions. I would expect, NELTA would organize specific training program in the days to come.” -Keshav Timilsina, Principal, Karkaladevi English School, Manthali
“ I had never participated such a grand event. I really enjoyed the remarks made by the president and other speakers on their speeches. Actually they did not delivered speeches; they shared their experiences regarding English language teaching and professional growth through NELTA like professional associations. I felt privileged being a part of this event. I enjoyed the practical training sessions on using songs in EFL classroom and tongue twisters very much.” -Ramita Rai, Teacher, executive member, NELTA Ramechhap
Conclusion
The branch conference was successful in terms of generating discussions on how a teacher can grow professionally in rural area. NELTA like professional associations are instrumental to connect the digital world to non-digital world through networking. In forms of organizing workshops/training events, conferences, publications, chaining of members at different levels, and mechanism of support from bottom to top or vice versa may certainly assist English teachers to grow. An affiliation to the NELTA like professional associations seem to have increased the feeling of ownership among the members, furthermore, that has fostered a sense of belongingness in a wider ELT community. Eagerness to make difference professionally and active involvement of participants of this branch conference made NELTA Ramechhap review its future directions, particularly, to increase its institutional capacity in terms of human and physical resources to host the international conference phase II in near future.

Ashok Raj Khati is an executive member of NELTA and former chair of NELTA branch Ramechhap.
Ganesh Shrestha is an executive member of NELTA Ramechhap branch and he teaches at Seti Devi college, Salu, Ramechhap.

Editorial : NELTA Choutari April Issue

Kamal Poudel

Dear Readers,
Professional conferences can be vanguard of change for a community like ours. If you have been a teacher for some time, you may remember the teaching approaches that you adopted in the early years of your career and how you have refined them over time. The way you think now is the consequence of the change in the time that you have undergone. Knowingly and unknowingly you are changing the patterns of your professional behaviors. You feel the same way in the days to come; no matter you are a novice teacher now. But such changes are possible only when you are charged with the concept of development. The professional development is the key factor to change you and your working pattern. As soon as you believe in the principle professional development, you start feeling to involve yourself in the gathering of teachers where you develop your network and finally you influence and get influenced. You, as a result, always feel the dire need of joining the conferences where people from different parts of the world bring various stories and you also convey your message in the same way.
NELTA organized its 17th International Conference in the month of February. There were teachers and ELT experts/practitioners from more than 22 countries to present and participate in the conference. There were a lot of sharing and discussions among the ELT stakeholders.
We are making this issue a special conference discussion issue. In addition to the reports of the conference, you will enjoy the materials by the three key speakers viz Prof Angi, Prof Malderez Fredricka L. Stoller and Prof Rod Ellis. Please enjoy the brief report of the presentations of various speakers from the different societies in the world. Further, we have articles that address the classroom teaching directly. It is my pleasure to share a report of training that was supported by Kate Miller.

  1. 17th International Conference of NELTA Phase I (Kathmandu)
  2. 17th International Conference of NELTA Phase II (Chitwan)
  3. Summaries of Conference Events 
  4. Three-day Teacher Training in Tanahu and Siraha supported by Kate Miller (a report by Shyam Pandey)
  5. Principles of Instructed Language Learning (by Rod Ellis)–click to open a slide show
  6. The Use of English Words in Teaching ESL in Jaffna (by T.Karunakaran)
  7. Beyond Binaries in Supporting in Teacher Learning: the Vital Role of Mentors (by Angi Malderez)
  8. Stories in ELT (by Angi Malderez)
  9. Project-Based Learning in EFL Classrooms (by Fredricka L. Stoller)
  10. Vocabulary Building: A Response to Students’ Present & Future Needs (by Fredricka L. Stoller)

Please join the conversation and share posts you like on your networks.

Cheers!
Choutari Team

A Report on 17th NELTA Conference

The following sessions (plenary presentations, workshops, poster presentations, symposium, and papers) were presented in the 17th International Conference (18th -20th Feb, 2012 Kathmandu (Phase I) and 22nd – 23rd, Feb 2012, Chitwan (Phase II))

In the workshop What is a task? Prof Rod Ellis suggested that ‘task’ is a fuzzy construct and that therefore it is not possible to determine whether an instructional activity constitutes a ‘task’ or an ‘exercise’. This workshop provided participants with an operational definition of a ‘task’ and then explored to what extent it could be used to distinguish tasks from non-tasks by examining a variety of instructional activities. In addition, participants examined how they could modify ‘exercises’ to convert them into ‘tasks’.

In the session Consciousness-Raising Tasks for Grammar Teaching, he began by explaining the difference between two types of second language (L2) knowledge – implicit knowledge and explicit knowledge. It then considered the role that explicit knowledge plays in both the use and the acquisition of an L2. One way of developing explicit knowledge pedagogically – through consciousness raising tasks – was discussed in terms of both its advantages and its limitations. A framework for designing such tasks was presented by examining ‘data’ and ‘implementation’ options. A number of studies that were investigated consciousness – raising tasks were discussed.

Angi Malderez in On Stories in ELT expressed, ‘Have we forgotten to use the oldest didactic technique we have? This talk provides a current rationale for the use of stories in ELT. The talk was illustrated by, and demonstrated the use of four stories – one for a primary language classrooms, one for a secondary classroom, one for teacher development, and one for mentor development. Sources for more stories are also provided.’ And in On Noticing she expressed, ‘In this workshop, participants will be involved in exploring the importance of noticing in effective teaching and teacher development, and in some of the many challenges we all face in noticing accurately. How to use what we have noticed to manage our own on-going learning is discussed, and a recent term in education – learnacy – is also introduced.’

In the presentation Vocabulary Building as a Response to Students’ Present and Future Needs Prof F. Stoller expressed, ‘Our students are typically the first to tell us that they are either at a loss for words or that they desperately need more vocabulary. And from our own experiences learning other languages, we know how critical vocabulary is for speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Although students can learn a lot of vocabulary incidentally, through language input, they benefit greatly from explicit attention to vocabulary learning in the classroom. In this presentation, we’ll explore important principles of effective vocabulary teaching and learning that can be used with students at all proficiency levels. Emphases will be placed on vocabulary selection criteria, principled ways to teach vocabulary, teaching techniques for recycling vocabulary, and instructional options that encourage students to see key words in relation to other words.’

In the workshop Techniques for Developing Students’ Reading Fluency she said, ‘Second language reading is a complex skill that requires main idea comprehension, discourse awareness, vocabulary learning, reading strategies, reading for different purposes, motivation, and fluency (Grabe, 2009; Nation, 2009). Sadly, fluency training is often neglected even though research has demonstrated that it contributes to reading comprehension abilities. Teachers sometimes believe that they lack the time to devote to fluency training; they assume that students will develop fluency on their own; and/or they are unaware of the many activities that can be integrated into their classrooms to promote reading fluency. Workshop participants will be introduced to the key elements of reading fluency (e.g., automaticity, accuracy, reading rate, word- and passage-reading fluency) and then explore various ways in which reading fluency can be addressed in the classroom with existing reading materials.’

Aaron P. Campbell’s presentation Guided Imagery for Language Learning focused on the use of text, photos, audio, and video as the primary means of content delivery in language learning. However, how often do we draw upon the imagination of our learners for the same purpose? The presenter introduced a guided imagery technique used in EFL classes with Japanese university students. In addition to giving participants a chance to experience the technique firsthand, the presenter also shared feedback from learners who practiced the technique repeatedly over a semester.

Afsana Laila and Ashik Sarwar’s presentation The Interior of EFL Classroom and the Tertiary Learners in Bangladesh focused on whether there was motivational and de-motivational relationship between the student’s peripheral learning and the interior design of an EFL classroom at the tertiary level. The focus of this study was on the environment, specially, the decoration of the classroom, the shape of chairs and musical background. The survey was on the Bangladeshi tertiary level of education where most classrooms are designed in such a way that they unintentionally develop learner’s tension affecting learning. This study drew on the Suggestopedic method that was concerned with affective filter and positive learning outcome.

Amber Powers’ presentation How to Make Exams Fair and Useful deliberated the assessments that come in all shapes and sizes, but one of the classic assessment tools is the written exam. This presentation discussed the benefits of creating term and mid-term exams and reviewed the rules for designing effective and fair exams for students in English medium classes. Moreover, it also looked at the examples of effective and ineffective test questions and tasks, and reviewed the process for designing, giving, and correcting tests. Amber Powers’ another presentation How to Teach While Students Play focused on all children who are born with a natural curiosity and love of learning. In this session, the presenter discussed easy ways to teach and assess younger students through playful, hands-on activities. They presented real examples from public school classrooms where teachers transform lessons from English medium government textbooks into engaging, rich learning experiences that efficiently teach students important concepts and vocabulary.

Amitpal Kaur’s paper Innovations: Crux of ELToffered some innovative classroom practices for the promotion of originality and divergent thinking through the teaching of English. They include issues like approach to teaching, role of learners, assessment methods and use of language outside the class. Creating humorous situations help to achieve useful results. In that, learners need to be self-motivated and tasks should provide multiple interactions.

Ananda Sharma and Laxman Gnawali’s presentation on Dictionaries and Foreign Language Learning discussed the importance of dictionaries in teaching and learning language cannot be stressed too highly. Often, however, the language users simply confine the use of dictionaries in finding word meanings, spelling and pronunciation. However, in fact, dictionaries come closer than grammars and textbooks to dealing with language as a totality. A good dictionary contains information on grammar, usage status, synonym discrimination, application of derivative affixes, and distinctions between spoken and written English. Such information is barely found in any grammar or textbook even in rudimentary fashion. Thus, the dictionary becomes an indispensable weapon in teacher’s arsenal, and discussions on its preparation and practice seems important in every teacher-training program.

Anil Gaman Ahire’s The Bonding of Culture and Language in the Language Learning Process
dealt with the teaching situation and teaching methods used in English Language Teaching (ELT) that needs to be changed to involve culture instead of language knowledge only. Teachers need to know to what extent cultural background knowledge influences language learning and teaching, and how teachers can take advantage of that influence in listening, speaking, reading, and translating.

Aniruddha Burm’s presentation MI Theory can be Used for Teaching and Learning of English
focused on language games and songs can be very effective tools in language teaching. Visits to places of environmental degradation can be made a source of teaching and learning both language and literature. Group Discussion, debates, quiz programmes, dramatization, seminar etc may be other ways of teaching language and literature. Charts, tables, diagrams, pictures can also be used for teaching language.

Anongnard Nusartlert’s presentation The effect of Thai Orthography on English Final Consonants Pronunciation deliberated that the Thai orthography (Karunt) is used for expressing the absence of sound especially when transcribed from foreign language into Thai. The objective of study was to analyze whether it affects English final consonants pronunciation. The data was collected from 10 Thai native speakers by reading target words. The analysis shows that Thais pronounce English final sound partly in accordance with their orthography and final sound pronunciation according to English loan words in Thai under constraints. It can be concluded that Thai orthography partly play important role on English pronunciation.

Antara Basak expressed in the presentation Classroom Action Research: An Effective Technique for Teaching Plan that carrying out the action research, he selected the students of class VIII of a school to check their efficiency in the use of “–s” and “-es” morphemes with the third person singular number in present indefinite tense.

Arup Ratan Das in Primary Teachers’ Attitudes towards English Language Teaching and Learning expressed that teachers’ attitudes are a crucial variable in any change (of materials, methods, etc.) in teaching-learning process. The introduction of new materials and methods need to be supplemented with the change of teachers’ attitudes and beliefs. English in Action (EIA), a language development programme is currently piloting a facilitative pedagogy to teach communicative English in Bangladesh. EIA aims to engage students and develop teachers’ practice through innovative classroom resources. This session explored primary teachers’ attitude using the new methods and materials.

Ashley Hager’s presentation Using Literature to Encourage Critical and Creative Thinking and English Language Proficiency dealt with learning how to use books, other than text books, to encourage critical and creative thinking and to promote English language proficiency. More specifically, teachers would understand the difference between critical thinking and memorizing, use fiction and non-fiction children’s books to ask questions to encourage critical and creative thinking and to design lessons use children’s books to design lessons that promote English language proficiency.

Ashok Sapkota and Mahendra Poudel’s presentation Choice of Languages by Nepalese Multilingual Speakers concentrated on Multilingual speakers’ aims to explore the different contexts where multilingual speakers use different languages. It tried to find out the attitudes of the participants towards the language they speak. The study revealed the fact that multi lingual speakers use different languages in various domains. Mainly eight domains: family, friendship, religion, education, job, business, mass media and health were taken in the study. The study tries to find out how multilingual speakers were benefitted by using multiple languages which help to reflect their multiple identities in context of Nepal. Likewise, Sapkota’s another presentation on Bringing E-technologies to EFL Classroom dealt with the use of several internet sources such as: blogs, ELT websites, several texts related video clips useful for higher secondary schools and web-based resources that are useful in the EFL classroom. It provided a practical on-line discussion to create blogs, search for ELT materials through web, and participant in the discussion shared their classroom experiences or problems related to it. It also tried to focus on the different teacher related on-line resources and the discussion forums that are useful for teachers’ professional development.

Ashutosh Ramakant Vardikar’s paper Teaching of Grammar: A Task-based Approach clarified that grammar teaching is an essential part of teaching of English language. The first part of the present paper briefly looked at basic issues in teaching grammar and discusses the principles of teaching grammar, as well as procedures that could be used in the classroom. The second part showed how grammar could be taught communicatively. It also described the characteristics of a good grammar task and how such tasks could be constructed.

Glocalizing Teaching of English as Communication by Avinash Yograj Badgujar mentioned that a problem in the teaching of English as communication in the rural scenario has come into particular prominence over the past few years; the presenter suggested a way in which it might be resolved. The problem is that students from rural area, who have received several years of formal English teaching, frequently remain deficient in the ability to use the language and to understand its use, in normal communication, whether in the spoken or written mode.

Vygotsky’s Theory of Scaffolding to Develop Students Reading and Writing by Babita Sharma Chapagain expressed when students learn new topics and begin new tasks, they may not have prior knowledge of the topics and tasks introduced, so they start panicking from where to begin or what to do. If their teacher ignores this reality, it can create a blockage that slows or hinders students’ learning process.

Barbara Law in Increasing Fluency and Speed in Reading discussed that fluent reading is essential to academic success. However, most texts students and teachers read are at either the instructional or the frustration level. It is difficult to increase reading and fluency when a reader has to struggle with vocabulary, complex sentence structure and unfamiliar content. This practical workshop demonstrated ways to increase fluency and speed in reading. Together participants read sample texts and discussed ways of improving their reading.

Bhawana Pokhrel’s presentation Essay Writing: Challenges and Fascinating Facilitation mentioned that writing is an arduous activity. This paper explored strategic approaches to facilitate learners/writers to write better essays creatively at the expense of less effort. It focused on starting strategies, innovative ways for generating ideas, ending strategies and know-how of the transitional words.

Bhirawit Satthamnuwong’s Teaching, Learning and Sharing: Implementing Genre-based Approach in a Writing Course proposed a genre-based lesson plan for teaching writing. Burns and Joyce’s Teaching-Learning Cycle model (1991) is implemented which includes four stages: ‘hands-on’ exploration of the genre; analysis of the rhetorical structure and lexico-grammatical features; joint-construction; and individual text construction. Learners explored the genre meaningfully and purposefully by scaffolding tasks, co-operative learning, and negotiation of meaning though class and group discussion.

Textbook in Action’ Through Technology by Bikash Chandra Sarkar and Malcolm Griffiths presented a scenario in Bangladesh. The national primary English textbooks in Bangladesh intend to focus on a communicative approach, yet there is little opportunity to practice listening and speaking skills in the classroom. English in Action (EIA) aims to improve communicative skills using innovative methods and materials.

English for Academic Purpose to the Students of Science and Technology by Bir Bhadur Shahi and Suvash Gautam highlighted the different activities carried out in English by the science and technology students, asking whether or not there is compatibility between the needs specified by the science and technology students and teachers. The major focus of the paper was to suggest to teachers, students and planners how science can be taught effectively through English.

Shadowing and Summarizing: Developing Fluency and Accuracy with Inspiring Stories by Brian McMillan presented the opinion that shadowing is the complete or partial repeating, either silently or out loud, of another person’s speech. By shadowing stories, learners can internalize phrases and grammatical structures which can later be recycled as they retell the stories, leading to improved fluency and accuracy. In this session, participants were shown how to introduce shadowing to their students, and tried shadowing and summarizing with stories that can motivate learners and promote new ways of thinking. Ideas for using split stories, action logs, class newsletters, and shadowing with movie scenes were also discussed.

Brian McMillan’s Curriculum and Materials Design for False Beginner to Pre-Intermediate Learners showed how teachers at a Japanese university planned an EFL course for non-English majors, designing learning materials targeting language from the A1 to B1 levels of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR). Participants viewed and discussed sample lessons and feedback collected from teachers after initial classroom trials. Other aspects of the course, including vocabulary learning, speaking tests, autonomous learning activities, and classroom language policies were also discussed.

Paraphrasing Stratégies & Techniques by Caroline Ouyang focused on English language learners’ composition abilities with a specific emphasis on the techniques and strategies the learners employed in paraphrasing outside sources in their original compositions. The presenter found that language learners’ paraphrasing strategies differ according to their level of mastery of the target language. The results of this project offered insight to the teachers in how to guide students in citing third party texts appropriately and references in personal writing.

Chiranjivi Sharma’s Dealing with the Building Blocks of Writing Compositions highlighted the problem of not being able to create effective compositions. The paper discussed techniques of writing effective paragraphs as prerequisite of a composition.

Big Class, Few Resources Activities by Christine Stone talked about the issues of the availability of few resources in teaching a big class in the developing countries like Nepal. The workshop also involved the participants in some general activities that can be adapted to any level and type of school where this is difficult.

Communicative Activities for Research Paper Writing by Corrie Wien presented communicative activities that help students improve such skills as avoiding plagiarism, using a variety of reporting verbs effectively, and practicing effective source integration. Participants also tried out some of these activities during the workshop and leave with handouts detailing others.

Daniel Stead’s Paraphrase Power: Paraphrasing Tasks that Support Language Development focused on the teaching of paraphrasing as a powerful tool for language learning and development. It also explored what paraphrasing is, how it is done, and why it is such an important but underemphasized language skill. The workshop showed how structured practice in both written and oral paraphrasing can help students expand their vocabulary and knowledge of grammatical structures and improve both productive and receptive language skills. The workshop was interactive, and audience participation was expected.

Authentic Language in the Classroom: Teaching Spoken English with Video by David Norton focused on strategies to use authentic language video clips as an interesting and accessible context to develop awareness of spoken English pragmatic devices and vocabulary. The presentation included sample mini-lessons and a discussion of possible sources of authentic language for classroom analysis and conclude with a discussion of other possible language forms to focus on using this technology, and a note on how to best meet the needs of your particular students using authentic language.

Teaching Effectively through Project Based Learning (PBL) by Dhundi Raj Giri gave a talk on how Project Based Learning (PBL) aims to teach the students without textbooks involving them in the real tasks in real life experiences to develop communication, critical thinking, and problem-solving skills. PBL can be effectively used in EFL classroom.

Teaching Writing through Short Stories by Dilruba Jahan and Ms. Sarah Asefa Zaman demonstrated the effectiveness of short stories in teaching writing to the first year students with empirical data. Data were collected from the learners’ performance in group works, discussions, and from the end products. The findings indicated that using short story facilitate students’ writing skill more effectively because of the motivational benefit rooted in the stories.

Dilruba Jahan and Sarah Asefa Zaman’s Using Literary Texts/Poetry Writing in ESL/EFL Classes illustrated the benefits of using literary texts ( poetry/ short stories) in ESL/EFL classes to motivate students to use English in different situations as it will improve not only their understanding of the target language but also improve their vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation.

Benefits of Reading Strategy Instructions by Dilruba Jahan presented how reading has been a gateway to all other knowledge. She shared how students, in Bangladesh, are exposed to reading comprehensions from a young age, yet their performance at the tertiary level is not quite satisfactory. This paper also aimed to discover the strategies used to teach reading in different language courses in some private universities in Bangladesh, effectiveness of these strategies and, keeping the context in mind, it tries to offer some useful strategies for the language teachers.

A Radio Programme in English by NELTA Sindhuli: Exciting Experience by Dinesh Raj Dahal and Khemraj Dhungel (Pramod) shared their exciting experience of running a radio programme at rural EFL setting of Nepal under NELTA Sindhuli, in the mid-eastern part of Nepal. They have been running a radio programme in English for one year. It has successfully completed more than 30 episodes. The goal of the programme is to assist English language learners, teachers, trainers and other who are interested in English language in general and English language pedagogy in particular. This talk session

English Language Teaching Aids in Under-Resourced Classrooms by Durga Prasad Pandeya offered variety of techniques on designing and using various contextual language teaching learning aids and materials in under-resourced classrooms especially for elementary school children. Moreover, this paper also dealt with communicative way of language learning and multipurpose usage of the same teaching tool with no more consumption of time and energy if a language teacher is conscious in the language class.

Eak Prasad Duwadi’s Use of Local Myths in Teaching EFL facilitated ELT practitioners to help their students learn examples of some grammatical rules and to create stories by using local myths, stories based on tradition which has a deep symbolic meaning. The great power of the meaning of myths, to the culture in which they developed, is a major reason why they survive for thousands of years. Uses of Local Myths in Teaching EFL Class draw students’ attention in class since it assists them become more imaginative and resourceful.

Engaging Students into Developing Rubrics to Ensure Learner Autonomy by Effat Hyder and Hasna Khanom focused on how students can be involved in setting the rubric for group, pair or individual writing tasks or speaking presentations and also discusses the effectiveness of this involvement in ensuring learner autonomy.

Human Rights and the English Classroom: A Practical Activities Workshop by Elizabeth M. Muller demonstrated practical activities including games, worksheets, discussions, and debates that can be utilized and adapted by teachers of all levels to educate students not only to be conscientious citizens of their own communities and countries, but of the world. Additionally, this paper also talked about how incorporating human rights and tolerance education into the English language classroom can foster understanding and open-mindedness, while also teaching positive and empowering human rights language and law to English learners of all ages.

The workshop Inter-Textuality in the Teaching of Reading by Ercilia Delancer was intended to demonstrate that EFL students who aspire to study in an American university would benefit from learning how to read pieces of text and to connect them to other reading materials in their own culture and other fields. Inter-textuality refers to the interdependent ways in which a text stands in relation to one another (as well as to the culture at large) to create meaning. So, the students must be familiar with the repeated uses of metaphors, alliterations, clichés, allusions, quotations, parodies and other literary devices form an integral part of the text to generate meaning.

Esmat Azizi’s presentation on Newsletter and Motivation talked about how writing newsletter is one of the best ways to combat this common problem, as it brings about an element of authenticity to their writing. It was a four-week long project, in which a group of five or six students completes an actual four-page newsletter. Each student writes at least one article on the topic of his or her choice. The emphasis is on originality, creativity, fun and teamwork.

Is Writing really Difficult or we Do Make it? by Faisal Naseer highlighted the fact that most teachers are accustomed to teach writing skills with a strong focus on completing syllabus, teaching grammar, intensive exercises and tasks based on isolated expressions and sentences. This brings students to bookish knowledge and experiences, whereas, the fresh minds could do wonders if their imagination is properly stimulated.

The Need for Nepal Studies and CLIL (Content Language Integrated Learning): Combining the Study of English and Social Studies by Sudhir K Jha, Babita Labh Kayastha, Hem Raj Khatiwada, Narayan Prasad Sharma and Ewan Davies looked at important aspects of syllabus design of Nepal Studies within the GCE A Level curriculum framework in Nepal. In collaboration with Ministry of Education, the Curriculum Development Centre, principals of A Level schools and the British Council a syllabus design approach has been completed that integrates important aspects of both Social Studies content knowledge and the English Language. This paper discusses the importance of combining the teaching of content knowledge through the medium of English.

The presentation Teaching English in large and under-resourced classes by Farzana Lodhi focused on the classroom practices of an English language class in Hyderabad Pakistan. The findings posit that the professional training has impacted practices more than the size of the classroom.

Submitting Our “Gems” for Publication in English Teaching Forum, and other professional journals, a presentation, by Fife MacDuff highlighted the issue that English teaching practitioners are sometimes reluctant to submit for publication. He explained that often what needs to be done is not clear and the supposition is that it is far too complicated. A step-by-step walk through the process, using English Teaching Forum as an example, will help future authors develop the confidence to submit their contributions.

Native Speech in Non-Native Classrooms: An Effective Tool for Teaching Pronunciation by Fauzia Janjua aimed at presenting her finding on the effectiveness of the use of native speech in English language classrooms. The results of the study were compared with the help of t-test and it was found that experimental group spoke English with more native like accent and was able to understand native speech quickly as compared to control group. The results of the study call for the use of native speech listening material in the spoken language classrooms to develop the pronunciation skills of second language learners.

Reflection- Mirror in Teaching, a Poster Presentation by Ganesh Gnawali discussed that most of us see our face in the mirror daily and remove our marks but how often do we observe ourselves professionally? He raised a question, ‘Do we need to see our past and reflect on it?

I’ve been Doing the Same for a Decade, a presentation by Ganesh Shrestha & Ashok Raj Khati initiated discussions and presented some experiences of six English language teachers from around the globe to give an example of how can the monotony of English language teachers in under-resourced part of Nepal generally find their profession, i.e. teaching English, monotonous and boring both inside and outside of the classroom.

Gary Cook’s presentation on Vocabulary Testing for Dummies” Starting from Scratch talked about the process of designing, an engaging computer-based vocabulary test to help with freshman and Sophomore to improve their English to better represent the words used in the BECC curriculum.

Assessment – an indispensable Part of the Curriculum, a presentation by Gayatri Khanna highlighted the issue that a curriculum is what constitutes a total learning-teaching program composed of overall aims, syllabus, materials, methods and assessment. Assessment, not only measures the progress and achievement of the learners, but also the effectiveness of the teaching materials and methods used for transaction. Hence, it should be viewed as a component of curriculum with the twin purpose of effective delivery and further improvement in the teaching-learning process. Thus, assessment improves a student’s performance by identifying his/ her learning difficulties at regular time intervals and employing suitable remedial measures for enhancing their learning performance.

Gayatri Khanna’s presentation on Dictionary: Indispensable Part of Life highlighted the fact that the use of dictionary can never be undermined to everybody who uses language, especially to students, teachers, and researchers. The average language user (and often translator) relies on a dictionary as authoritative source of information. It is not merely a compilation of words with their meanings but also their right utterance, syllable structure; part of speech, usage and etymology. Idiomatic expressions and phrasal verbs are often too difficult to guess, thereby necessitating the use of dictionaries. Clearly the dictionary improves students’ writing skills with practical tips and step-by-step guidance through the planning, writing, and editing stages. Rightly so, then most people typically refer to the dictionary; not a dictionary.

Auto-ethnography: An Emerging Trend in Research, a presentation by Gokul Sharma, focused on how auto-ethnography emerged and its style of writing. Auto-ethnography is grounded on the postmodern philosophy and is linked to growing debate about reflexivity and voice in social research. In auto-ethnography, the author explores the state of understanding auto-ethnography as a research method and describes the experience of an emerging qualitative researcher in learning about this new and challenging genre of inquiry.
Gopal Prasad Bashyal’s presentaion on Learner Autonomy: Enabling Learners as Self-directed Learners talked about strategies that help them make the learners more independent, self-directed learners.

Gopal Sharma’s presentaion on Wrappers and Teaching Beyond the Text-Book focused on how Wrappers (realia) brought in classroom stimulate spoken or written language production. Its value in fostering an active teaching-learning makes English language input comprehensible. It builds an associative bridge between the classroom and the world around learners. These wrappers describe the ways of target culture and understanding. These are sets of teaching aids that simulate experience in the target culture. They give multi-sensory impressions like seeing, touching, and manipulating. These authentic materials are contextual and students bring into contact with language in the target culture. They enhance vocabulary, and are language learning tools beyond the classroom text books.

Gyanu Dahal and Bikash Rimal’s presentation on ‘Analyzing and Addressing Forgetting Problem among School Children’ focused on one of the common problems among the school children. It explored the causes of forgetting in the context of our school children and suggests some ways to minimize the problems. It has close relationship with the ways of presenting the lesson. The session tried to link different theoretical aspects and their practical application in our context.

Hannah Haegeland’s Teaching Hamro English: Developing Critical Thinking Skills highlighted how the English classroom is an ideal place to develop critical thinking skills. Emphasizing the unique capacity of every individual student to contribute is pivotal if we are to graduate thoughtful students who are responsibly engaged with the world.

Hannah Haegeland’s presentation on ‘Teaching Creative and Analytical English Writing in the Nepali Classroom’ stressed how to teach analytical or essay-writing and creative writing—including poetry, “free-writing,” stories, and descriptive pieces—to students.

Hannah Haegeland’s presentation on ‘The Globalization of English: Contextualizing Language Learning in the Nepali Classroom’ showed how EFL teachers in Nepal can make the language relevant to the South Asian, and specifically Nepali context for better learning and comprehension

Hari Maya Sharma’s presentation on ‘Just 45 minutes; 40 Students and Teaching Reading Interactively: How? suggested some steps to involve students in reading activities even in a short lesson in a large class. The presenter also shared interactive reading lesson in which the students participate in the reading activities.

Harry Samuel’s presentation on ‘Interview Role Play’ demonstrated a lesson in which members of the audience participate in a simulation of an interview. Some play the roles of interviewers and others play the people being interviewed. Problem solving skills are also practiced through participating in a selection process. This activity can be performed using a variety of situations including an employment interview, a university admissions interview, an academic exchange interview, and many others.

Task Based Language Teaching, a presentation by Hikmat Bahadur Oli and Mukund Kumar Giri shed light on the emergence of TBLT, its theoretical foundation, framework, components, types of tasks, procedures and advantages.

Ishwor Adhikari’s presentation on English Language, Globalization and Teachers’ Role focused on English as an interdependent global village with discussion on how teachers stimulate, participate and link lessons with real life world.

Teaching Oral Communication Skills using Task Based Method, a presentation by Ishwor Prasad Kadel, described the applications of the task-based approach to teach oral communication skills in an academic setting. A course ‘Oral Communication Skills’ is taught to the language learners from any walks of life.

James Stabler-Havener’s presentation on ‘Using the Action-Research process to Develop Teaching Themes in State Curriculum’ introduced the participants to the cyclical techniques of action-research (1. identifying a problem, 2. systematic data collection, 3. analysis, 4. reflection, 5. data-driven action, and 6. problem reformulation.) to address practical classroom challenges and then was described how action research can be used to develop teaching themes.

Janak Raj Pant and Ram Prasad Niraula’s presentation on English Through Games and Rhymes: An Initiative for Child-friendly Teaching presented some techniques and tips for applying games and rhymes in an English language for making the teaching learning activities fun for the students and easy going for the teachers who have to deal with the students of varying levels.

Using Innovative Methodology on Task-Based Language Teaching, a presentation by Janakie Chandrani Jayalakshmi Gunatilake involved the participants in group activities. Each group got a picture to describe so, they have to study it carefully and contribute their own ideas.

Off the Page, On the Air by Joseph Dwaileebe showed that listening activities can be created to fit materials being taught in any of the other skill areas and in grammar. A wide range of original exercises were presented and the participants, after doing them, discussed and evaluated their merit.

How to Check Meaning? by Jovan Ilic explored ways of how to check that your students understand language. A review of traditional techniques was followed by a focus on ‘concept check questions’ and ‘time-lines’; on why they work, and more importantly, on how to do them.

On Testing by Jovan Ilic reviewed the main types of tests that are administered, in particular achievement and proficiency tests. He then looked at the three key indicators in determining whether a test would be effective: Validity, Reliability and Practicality.

Received Pronunciation as Panacea for Second Language Learners, a presentation by K. Balasubramanian projected RP as the standard model for learning English pronunciation. Then the presentation was followed by the discussion that English teaching/learning would become holistic only when its pronunciation is emphasized.

Kamal Poudel and Padam Chauhan’s presentation on ‘Facilitating Learners’ Reading Efficiency’ focused on facilitating learners’ reading efficiency involving communicative activities. The workshops gave away some handy ideas that can be replicated in classroom while doing reading lessons.

Growing Without Tears: Games and Activities in the EFL Context, a presentation by Kamal Poudel and Florence Droza concentrated on how language learning can be made easy. Learning a new language is always a big challenge to the students in the context where they have to memorise and follow the rules in a structural pattern. If the learning of foreign language is accompanied with the games and activities that involve them more actively, the learning enhancement will be in smooth move which is characterised by the first language acquisition. The learning slowly moves towards the pattern of acquisition, and this enables the learners grow the linguistic skills without anxiety.

Kamal Raj Devkota’s presentation on ‘Teaching Free Writing: Link with the Real-Life Experience of the Learners’ shared the classroom practices that the presenter carried out while teaching it to the students using semi-controlled and free activities that enhanced free writing skills.

Kamal Raj Lamsal’s presentation on ‘Critical Thinking in the Classroom’ aimed at helping teachers design activities for fostering critical thinking, e.g. 1. What letter is next in this sequence? M, A, M, J, J, A, S, O, __. 2. Which is faster, heat or cold?

Use of Internet in Teaching of English at Undergraduate Level by Karandikar Vallabh Shankar dealt with different uses of the Internet, which has given a new dimension to our modern digital world, in the process of teaching of English as the Internet and English are inseparable from each other. The Internet provides various types of reference materials and sources, which are extremely useful for teaching of English at undergraduate level.

Teaching of English Narratives in India, a presentation by Kavita Ashok Chouhan and Niteen Vasant Dandekar focused on the teaching methods used for the teaching of English narratives. It focused on the feasibility of various teaching methods in teaching and learning of English narratives in India.

Word: Root of Creativity by Keshab Prasad Joshi and Dib Bahadur Sherbuja focused on encouraging the students not to use the same words and sentences repeatedly for better writing skills. They discussed on the issue that students should be inspired to produce varieties of sentences which is ultimately “answer in own words.”

Shared Experiences: Collaborative Learning Theory, Methodologies and Techniques, a presentation by Kevin Ramsden explained the advantages of collaborative learning as an effective model of learning/teaching, and looked at why it is believed to contribute to a more positive learning experience for a broad cross-section of students at the high school level and undergraduate level in tertiary institutions.

Kh. Atikur Rahman and Md. Nurunnabi’s presentation on Use of ICTs in English Teachers’ Professional Development in Bangladesh shared the opportunities created and the challenges faced while using ICTs in teachers’ PD.

Developing the Art of Interpretation: A Pedagogical Device by Khedkar Sandip Prabhakar attempted to explore possibilities of interpretations to use in the teaching of celebrated poems.

Creating a Communicative Context to Develop a News Story by Khila Sharma Pokharel revolved round the features of communicative language teaching and its application to developing a news story in a communicative context with very limited resources.

Dictionaries and Foreign Language Learning by Krishna Niroula and Phatik Poudel highlight the importance of dictionaries in teaching and learning language and how it assists second language acquisition. Furthermore, they also presented the theories with activities to use a dictionary effectively in a language classroom.

Culture Issue in English Language Teaching by Krishna Prasad Suwal focused on gathering the views of the participants on is it good or bad to incorporate our cultures in teaching English with rationale to incorporate culture in an English classroom.

Critical Thinking Strategies: Useful Tools to Foster Creativity and Increase Learner-centeredness in EFL/ESL Classes by Lal Bahadur Rana and Bimal Nepali highlighted how critical thinking strategies have been used to help learners develop higher level of thinking. However, they have also been found to be very instrumental in order to foster creativity among the learners, and to increase learner-centeredness in EFL/ ESL classes, because those strategies require learners to carry out various kinds of activities on their own.
Laxman Gnawali in ELT Conferences and Teacher Professional Development: Exploring the Thread deliberated that English teaching professionals attend ELT conferences for a number of reasons: some may attend to get new teaching tips while others may come to network with colleagues from another country. Whatever intentions the attendees may have, the conference experience is an opportunity for their professional growth and development. But for the experience to become professionally enriching, the attendees must know how to best avail from these professional events.

In the presentation, Handwriting Improvement through Different Activities by Laxmi Aryal explained that handwriting is not a big issue in the language classroom. The presenter addressed the following questions. Why handwriting problem isn’t focused in the classroom? Is copying only the way to improve handwriting?

Which Accent to Follow? by Laxmi Bahadur Maharjan dealt with the significance of the accent in every English language teacher. An intelligible accent is always considered a characteristic feature of not only an English language teacher but all and it enhances our will power and personality. There are no good or bad accents. Accents are all absolute. Any inadequate instruction in speech/pronunciation can result in a complete breakdown in communication.

Activities for Large Classes by Lisa Roegner deliberated that trying to create student-centered activities in a large class of 50 or more students can be challenging for many instructors regardless of the learning context. However, there are some ways to make such classes less teacher centered and more dynamic for second language learners.

Empowering Trainee Teachers to Use Drama and Theatre-in-Education in their Classes by Logamurthie Athiemoolam provided an account of the strategies implemented in the English methodology class to empower trainee teachers with skills to use drama and theatre- in-education in their classes. The focus of the training is on experiential learning whereby students are provided with the contexts for their own creative pieces. Some of the techniques that students are exposed to include short role play exercises, frozen image building, the creation of improvised plays and the use of short scripts for play production. The students are also afforded opportunities to create their own piece of theatre which they present to an audience.

Using Art as a Tool in ELT by Mobindra Regmi explained that expression through art is sometimes more effective than expression through words. Many learners may find it more comfortable to use art as a means for expression, especially if they are reluctant or unable to use words instead. Afterwards, the art form can be translated into words through description or reflection as spoken or written activity in English Language classroom. This session looks into ways that medium of art can be useful in the field of English Language Teaching. After all, as the old adage goes, ‘A picture is worth a thousand words.’

Madhu Neupane (Bastola)’s Strengthening Teacher Association for Professional Development discussed that the role of Teacher Associations for professional development of teachers cannot be overemphasized. In the present day world no knowledge can be used for long time; only truth in this dynamic world is ‘change’. The idea of a person as an expert has now been questionable. Teacher Associations are helping teachers grow professionally by taking their situations into consideration, by providing them with the platform to share their ideas and learn from each other and create knowledge locally. The strength of any teacher association lies in the preparation and implementation of strategic planning. This presentation helped the participants to strengthen Teachers Associations by giving them the practical ideas for preparing strategic planning

Incorporating Literary Texts in EFL Classroom for Creative Writing by Madhukar K.C. discussed that the role of an English teacher today is not just to teach students, but to make them self-dependent learners .The success of a teacher depends upon how he remains in motivates students to use their creative energy. Ironically, creative writing and creativity is rarely dealt with in EFL classrooms in Nepal because of teachers’ belief that their students can ever create something of their own. This presentation focuses on how the teachers can motivate their students for creative writing using various literary texts.

Improving Handwriting of EFL Learners by Mandira Adhikari Nibedita Sharma presented the findings of an action research carried out with the primary level students in order to improve their handwriting. Thirty-eight participants of the action research had problems with their handwriting: the problem was greater when they shifted their handwriting from four line cursive writing notebook to two line normal notebook.

Manju Basnet and Shailaja Jha’s Techniques for Teaching Vocabulary in EFL Context involved the participants in various activities with the aim to develop vocabulary without making learners feel threatened. It also presented innovative strategies which made the presentation more enjoyable experience for both participants and the presenter.

The session Use of Mini-Speeches in ESL Classroom by Mark (Max) Dodds dealt with the use of ‘mini-speeches’ in the classroom to help students develop the ability to briefly and logically state their point of view using appropriate vocabulary after which they must defend their view by answering classmates’ questions. The session included methods of eliciting topics, and some practical exercises to build the vocabulary needed for the speeches.

Teachers Benefiting from Researching their Own Practice by Mark Wyatt presented how the teachers can benefit from researching their own practice. This paper reported on a University of Leeds BA TESOL project in Oman with in-service primary and secondary school teachers of English. The BA TESOL encouraged the participating teachers to engage in research projects of their choice for their final year dissertations. Benefits reported by the teachers were discussed, as were lessons that could be drawn from this experience that were applicable to other geographical and educational contexts.

The session presented by Muhammad Saeed Akhter on Impact of Syllabus on ELT Methodology: SAARC Countries Perspective explored the impact of syllabus on English language teaching methodology in SAARC countries. The sample of the study was 1040 students and 340 teachers of English, selected randomly. The findings indicated that the present syllabuses did not conform to the requirements of the effective methodology for teaching English. Suggestions were given for process oriented and task based syllabus.

Symposium on Creative Writing presented by Maya Rai Motikala Subba Dewan Sarita Dewan discussed various aspects of creative writing activities for teaching English. This symposium was a part of regular activity of Asian Teachers’ Creative Group. In this symposium, they proposed to involve participants in the following creative writing activities and discuss how those activities can be applied in teaching English.
1. Writing poems
2. Performing creative writing (e.g. Slam poetry)
3. Story writing

Md. Abdullah Al Mamu and Rasel Babu’s presentation on We Want to Learn English: Voices from Bangladeshi Learners presented the result of the study which explored secondary level learners’ motivation for learning English. Data were collected from 400 secondary students and 10 English language teachers of ten secondary schools of two different districts of Bangladesh. Data had been gathered through students’ questionnaire, focused group discussion (FGD) with students and English teachers’ interview schedule. Six students participated in each FGD. Data had been analyzed following both qualitative and quantitative approaches of research. Findings of the study showed that Bangladeshi learners have different sources of motivation for learning English like passing exam, getting good job, using modern technology, upgrading self status in society etc.

Leveraging Mobile Phones to Make Bangladesh’s ‘Vision 2021’ a Reality by Md. Sikander Mondol reported on English in Action’s (EIA) field test of mobile phones, audio and visual resources and portable rechargeable speakers to realize the government’s goal of creating a ‘Digital Bangladesh’. Drawing on qualitative and quantitative data, described the uptake, results of how these kits help both teachers, and students learn communicative English.

Ensuring Fairness in Marking Students’ Writing: The Question of Inter-Marker Reliability presented by Md. Zulfeqar Haider Takad Ahmed Chowdhury explored the way students’ writings are marked by the different markers at selected private universities in Bangladesh. The study addressed two questions – do all markers follow the same criteria while marking a piece of writing? and, do test takers know the criteria used by the markers? The paper compares the marks awarded to selected samples of writing by several markers and collects the views of markers and test takers. The findings showed little evidence of inter-marker reliability. It was also evident that the test takers were not made aware of the criteria used for marking their writing.

Mehedi Kayser Pabitra’s Business World in Language Classrooms: An Effective Language Acquisition Model presented a simulation model of an authentic communicative platform to develop students’ business communication skills in speaking, reading and writing. Carried out for a group of ESL/EFL Business English course students, intended to help them experience business world settings inside and outside the classroom, the paper discussed the teaching techniques, the learning outcomes, and the stages of the simulation model. It also outlined the major benefits, hindrances and suggestions of simulations for ESL/EFL classrooms.

This paper cum workshop on Strategies in Teaching Listening by Molly Jo Gorevan and Sarala Bhattarai deliberated easy way to teach listening skill. The approach discussed in this paper offered a means of empowering teachers to help students deal with problems in listening movement. This paper discussed the method of listening. It is important to prepare the students for the listening by setting the context, introducing vocabularies and ideas and helping the learners predict what they will hear concentrating on extensive and intensive listening.

Mostan Zida Alnoor’s “Does Open and Distance Learning work for Teachers’ Professional Development?” discussed the idea that the teachers always need scope for continuous learning. In Bangladesh, on-going support remains limited. English in Action– has opted for a specific mode of Open and Distance Learning (ODL). ODL is an advanced step of distance learning which attempts to make learners’ learning easier by freeing them from constrains of time and place and offers flexible learning opportunities (UNESCO, 2003).

The paper on Changing Teaching: Changing learning by Mostan Zida Alnoor Sharmistha Das focused on how students’ learning is strongly linked to the quality of teaching and teachers’ professional development. Improving the quality of teaching does mean changing teachers’ beliefs on learning, their thinking and understanding of classroom practices. In Bangladesh, professional development is a challenging concept, especially in relation to life long-learning and reflective practices. In this situation, English in Action (EIA)-has initiated an innovative technology-driven teacher training and supports programme including, periodic face-to-face support, distance support and peer learning. This paper focused on the successes and challenges of the pilot phase of this initiative.

The Lens of Linguistic Difference and Institutional Interactional Practices in Pakistan presented by Mohammed Ali khan used the lens of linguistic difference to interpret the concrete discursive practices of four research sites in Pakistan. The findings suggested that understanding of the socio-economic inequality of local actors is and investigates these gives insights into the ways participant respond to ELT teaching on their everyday institutional lives.

Translation has crossed innumerable bends. In its journey from ‘random practice’ to systematic ‘translation studies’, numerous scholars have appeared, and contributed a lot in consolidating its trademark. Remaining in touch with them, Nabaraj Neupane’s Strategies Applied in the Translation of Nepali Culture-Bound Terms into English attempted to analyse its different definitions and perspectives, traced out major gaps and recommended some of the major strategies to bridge the gaps which occur in translating culture-bound terms in English. Newmark (1988), Hervey and Higgins (1992), and Harvey (2000), are adapted in the context of translating Nepali texts into English, in cases of ‘Socrates Footsteps’, ‘Muglan’ and ‘Blue Mimosa’.

Critical Thinking in ELT Classroom by Narendra Narayan showed how critical thinking enables the teachers and learners to determine their own criteria and accurate facts on the basis of plausible sources, how it is precise for a lifelong learning, unbiased and free from logical fallacies. How it equips with logically consistent and strong reasoning power.

In Motivate your Students in EFL Classroom by Narendra Singh Dhami and Ashok Raj Khati presented that learner motivation has a powerful influence in language that makes the learning productive. It is very easy to tell others: “motivate the students”. But how to motivate the students is not an easy job. Moreover, motivation in teaching EFL is different from that of teaching other subjects. In the National Curriculum for the Secondary levels, there is hardly any focus on English Literature in the English syllabus. Students in Dhaka University face great difficulty in tackling literature.

Introducing Literature Critically and Creatively to Bangladeshi University Students by Dr. Nevin Farida and Begum Shahnaz Sinha aimed to show how we meet the needs of our learners. They drew upon the techniques of close reading and stylistics to develop their critical and creative abilities in order to respond to literature. The workshop presented the approach and shared some of the materials and activities used.

Niteen Vasant Dabdekar and Kavita Ashok Chouhan’s presentation on Teaching of English through Literature focused on the use of literature as an innovative technique for teaching basic language skills LSRW and grammar in multilingual India. It also focused on the feasibility of using literature in teaching language. It studies the issues, challenges and opportunities in the use of literature for the teaching language. At a young age, we are taught to tolerate and even embrace the innate differences each person possesses. Why then, do educational practices continue to standardize instruction for a uniformity in students, which does not exist? Differentiated Instruction refers to an educational approach in which instruction and assessment are altered to accommodate the needs of every individual student.

English for Everyone: Differentiating ELT Instruction and Assessment by Olivia Drabczyk highlighted valuable practices of differentiation to implement in the ELT classroom; and emphasized the imperative of transitioning ELT in Nepal from rote learning and memorization to a multi-faceted approached in which each individual student can flourish.

Parash Malla and Janak Raj Pant’s Web-Based Learning Materials: Boon for the ELT Classroom presented some techniques/tips for applying online resources in an English language class for making the teaching learning activities fun for the students of varying levels and interest, moving from traditional classroom practices making the transition smooth. The participants were provided with a set of CDs based on British Council website.

Teaching English as a Gateway to Diverse and Integrated Learning by Parvati C. Mazumdar demonstrated how English Language teaching learning can become an instrument to widen students’ conceptual learning of different subjects other than what is traditionally considered English Language and Literature syllabus. Teacher-participants learnt how to use grade appropriate texts and multi-media to enhance listening, oral and writing skills of students. This model of integrated teaching-learning of English with other subject areas will enable English language teachers in primary, secondary and non-formal settings, to enhance their given curriculum using local resources and drawing upon the experiential knowledge of their students in a constructivist way.

Principles of L2 Vocabulary Learning by Paul Joyce deliberated that the acquisition of vocabulary is an extremely important part of L2 language and teaching. However, in order to develop your lexical knowledge as quickly and efficiently as possible, it is important to understand the principles of vocabulary learning. This workshop helped participants to develop a framework for their vocabulary acquisition by addressing such questions as: How many words do you need to know? What does it mean to know a word? How should you learn vocabulary?

Language Choice and Religious Identities: Pedagogical Implications by Phyllis Ghim-Lian CHEW presented that each language carries the particularities of its socio-cultural and historical contexts and each language cuts markers on the landscapes, maps out the cognitive terrain and provides the thought pathways whereby we may habitually traverse. This paper was a comparative study of language choice and religious identities of three Singapore madrasas. The study revealed how language chance or the medium of instruction, be it Arabic, Malay or English influence, is intricately connected to religious identities as manifested in an array of classroom semiotics and pedagogical practices. The methodology used includes ethnographic research methods ranging from field notes, participant observations, audio and video tapes to interviews with pupils, teachers, and parents.

Vocabulary Comes First by Prassanna Karki and Tika Maya Rai discussed that teaching vocabulary is essential. It can be taught in various ways. They shared ideas on teaching and learning of vocabulary through games, songs and pictures for enhanced English language learning.

How Communicative is the Communicative Approach? :The German Teacher’s Experience by Pratiti Shirin stated although reservations remain, the English language classroom has accepted CLT as the dominant approach to teach English. The German language teaching classroom is no exception. But how communicative is the communicative approach really?

Children’s rights to acquire basic education through Mother Tongue by Praveen Kumar Yadav discussed that Nepal is a home of diverse linguistic communities with more than 92 languages. The children with mother tongues other than Nepali cannot compete with Nepali speaking children. They feel inferior, isolated, or incompetent and are forced to remain as a disadvantaged group in our school situation. There is low enrollment of non-Nepali speaking children at primary level, their low achievement and higher dropouts. The present paper made an advocacy for children’s right to acquire basic education through Mother Tongue.

Experience from a Bangladeshi Primary School: Milestone in English Learning by Pushpen Chandra Paul focused on how a primary school and its community can be helpful for the tender aged students for practicing English language. Motivated learners, devoted teachers, sincere school administration, joyful learning environment, enthusiastic parents and community found as the components behind the success.

Rabeya Binte Habib’s Teacher Education Policy in Bangladesh: Gap to be Bridged dealt with the fact that the government of Bangladesh has also become serious in promoting ELT in order to gain economic growth Despite taking different plans and projects, the teacher training program in Bangladesh did not develop efficiently to meet the demand of time. This empirical research delved into the prospects and challenges of EFL teacher education at pre-university level with a view to closing the gap between policy level expectations and actual practices.

Muteness in Teaching: an Awesome Practice by Raj Kishor Chaudhary and Kishori Sharan Yadav’s explained that communication in the ELT Classroom generally takes place in the aural-oral form. Non-Verbal communication (NVC) is also one of the vital ways of communication. NVC is communication through sending and receiving wordless messages. His presentation shared that an understanding of NVC can improve the effectiveness of communication.

Raju shrestha’s Current practice of TPD: From insiders’ perspective presented current practices of teacher professional development in. He shared findings of the investigation about the potential areas of teacher development practice and explored the ground reality. This paper concluded with the practical ways to enhance teacher professional development practice focusing on local solutions to local problems.

Cambridge Advanced English Test at a Glance by Ram Sharan Dhakal focused on a general overview of Cambridge Advanced English (CAE) offered by Cambridge University ESOL.

Ramesh Khatri’s Attitudes of Student-Teachers towards Practice Teaching Programme presented attitudes of student-teachers towards practice teaching at Tribhuvan University. Practice teaching aims at helping students put their theoretical knowledge of teaching into practice and work jointly with and learn from teachers and supervisors. A questionnaire was constructed and administered to 90 informants. It was found that 72.38% respondents have positive; 20.31% have negative and remaining 6.84% respondents have neither positive nor negative attitudes towards the programme.

Rasel Babu’s Learning English at Primary Level: Fun, not Fear discussed that English-in-Action (EiA) is a project working in Bangladesh to develop learners’ English language skills. This study explored the success story of the project. Data were taken from ten primary schools of EiA intervention areas through classroom observation, focused group discussion with students and teachers’ interviews. In those schools, students learned English through games, songs, rhymes and different interactive activities. This paper highlighted the English class activities of EiA Primary schools through which students started to enjoy their lessons and became motivated towards learning English, while leaving all their anxieties behind.

English Curriculum of Bangladesh: Prescription and Implementation by Rasel Babu deliberated that English Curriculum of Bangladesh was introduced in 1995 by National Curriculum and Textbook Board (NCTB). The curriculum suggested different instruction for English language teaching-learning. The study aimed to explore to what extent the instructions of curriculum has been implemented in the real context. As the findings, the study revealed some mismatches between the prescribed English curriculum and its practice, especially in case of classroom interaction and assessment system. So, this paper presents the major findings of this research study.

Encouraging Collaboration through Project Works by Richard Hawking was a poster presentation that focused on a project in which ESL students collaborate to prepare and deliver a presentation, and then act as ‘teachers’, leading the class and guiding other students through communicative activities. Though this project was designed for university students, using PowerPoint during the presentation, it could easily be adapted to be used with ESL students of any age, and in teaching environments with even very basic facilities.

Robert Kirkpatrick’s presentation IELTS Writing test: reliability and raters explained the IELTS writing module, including a detailed look at rater training. It highlighted the difficulties involved in scoring writing tasks and the ways that the IELTS organization attempts to achieve objective and reliable rating. Explanations of the band scores should help students understand what good academic writing is and what they need to improve so that their own writing becomes clear, structured and focused.

Rokshana Shirin’s workshop Text Based Teachers Training focused on findings from a pilot training project that having a planned text book is not the core thing for effective second or foreign language teaching. The objective of any well-formed lesson planning is for learners to comprehend which requires highly text based trained teachers.

Roxana Ahmad Chowdhury and Golam Kader Zilany’s presentation Drama: Proven Essentials of BRACU CFL to Create Competent Learners focused on incorporating drama which is one of the most unique features of the Foundation Course in English at BRAC University Centre for Languages. This feature has been integrated aiming to make learners overcome fear and introvert attitudes at the very beginning of their academic life. Beside this there are some other much needed faculties for the learners like; creative/productive, cultural awareness and critical responsiveness nurtured during pre, while and post drama classes. The presentation uncovered how drama works and how objectives are achieved in the classroom situations with abundant practical evidences.

Sabiha Sultana’s presentation Learning English: Reshaping Students’ Aspirations focused on all learning arrangements revolve around students’ needs, this paper investigated learners’ aspirations and preferences about learning English. The data were collected from five groups of students at grades VI to VIII using group interviews from five rural schools in. The analysis of data shows a new dimension of students’ ambition about learning English.

Sagade Balasaheb Babanrao’s presentation Use of Computer& Internet in Teaching English: Activities for Teachers talked about Today Teaching of English, as learning of English is no more just a classroom phenomenon. The computer revolution has dissolved the differences between rural and urban students. Internet not only supports teaching but also accelerates the speed of learning English. Teachers have significant function to play in helping students achieve their goals while using the Internet. The researcher intended to explore possibilities of multifaceted use of Internet in teaching English, virtual class room, on line lectures of experts, video conferencing ,websites and other much more support services can be perceived in the pedagogical light. It will explore some internet based activities for teachers.

Sagun Shrestha’s workshop Can I Be a Blogger? Emphasized Blog is a common electronic forum for a teacher and students in a language classroom these days. They can post their thoughts and opinions on a regular basis and get immediate feedback which paves the way to be more creative and critical. Teacher blog, student blog, class blog and project blog have really transformed the traditional language classroom into techno-language classroom.

Sajan Karn’s presentation Why we are not doing what we are not doing? Integrating critical thinking into ELT Lessons emphasized that most human beings take things for granted. In other words, they have developed the habit of doing things conventionally without questioning. This is because they are not critical thinkers. The importance of critical thinking in human life can hardly be exaggerated. So is its value in education. However, Nepalese ELT seems to have virtually ignored the element of critical thinking. In this paper, he questioned why we are not doing what we should have been doing and why we have been doing what we should avoided doing during teaching of English.

Sally White conducted the workshop Look, Listen, Feel – Matching your Students’ Learning Styles. In this interactive workshop, participants were guided through Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) techniques that serve to enhance teacher and learner autonomy in the classroom. The focus was on identifying and using the three systems of visual, auditory, and kinesthetic in teaching and learning. Through awareness of individual preferred learning styles, students can take charge of their learning and teachers can more effectively meet the learning needs of each student. Participants were engaged in activities involving reading, writing, discussions, focused observations, and gentle physical movement.

Samjhana Pradhan’s presentation English Teaching Techniques in Business Education explored teaching techniques to Business students graduating from Bachelor’s programme. It discussed methods and approaches of teaching, the role of English teachers in Business education. Teachers undergo teacher training and teacher development programme. Despite their knowledge on language and literature, the teachers need to understand business individually as a consumer in the world business.

Sarah Elisabeth Howlett’s workshop Rapping with Obama: The Power of Music in Understanding English Texts explained Essay writing is a challenging concept for any student, whether they are native or foreign language speakers. This workshop aimed to demonstrate how complicated English texts can be broken-down and restructured into songs, thereby enabling students to extract fundamental information from a given piece of writing and simultaneously comprehend the components of formulating an essay. Furthermore, students are encouraged to exercise their creativity and their concluding performances not only entertain all, but provide valuable lessons in teamwork. Students come to appreciate the value in English writing and, through their own ingenuity, understand that English essay construction is not such a daunting task.

Saraswati Dawadi’s presentation Testing plays a very important role in teaching learning process discussed five assessment principles that are important when designing any type of test. In addition, it provided varieties of techniques and strategies to make our test a good test. The participants were involved in various activities so that they can experience and understand the five important aspects of testing and get equipped with the standard techniques to design an authentic test.

Hermayawati Setijadi’s presentation Improving Speaking Skill of Domestic Migrant Worker Candidates Using FELM focused on English Module designed for improving overseas job-seekers speaking skill for survival needs. It is effective to use in the Authorized Institution of Indonesian Overseas Worker Candidates (for alpha was 0.04) to improve a hundred overseas job-seekers in Yogyakarta, in 2010. The training project funded by the Department of Education aimed at improving their speaking skill to increase their bargaining position abroad and to communicate with employers. This program was a community service project in the form of English training using FELM as my previous research finding.

Teaching English in Large and Under- Resourced Contexts by Shaila Ahmed discussed that most schools in Bangladesh have large, under-resourced classes. As a result, teachers are constantly applying various methods and approaches to make their ESL class successful and provide the best opportunities to every individual. Group work and pair work may be good methods for not only reaching out to large classes but also helping back benchers, under-motivated and shy students. This paper presented the findings of an action research done to determine the benefits and disadvantages of group work or pair work in large and under-resourced classrooms.

Shama Rajbhandari Shrestha and Jolly Shrestha Subba’s presentation Games In EFL Classroom
Focused on language learning skill which can be taught through different language games, students learn more if they are involved in language through games. Different language games are required for strong motivational impact on learning language upon students. So the presentation focused on how teachers can motivate their students by the help of language games in EFL classrooms.

Sharmila Sitaula and Kalpana Paudel’s presentation An action Research: How to make Grammar Class Interesting? Explored the possibilities of teaching grammar in interesting ways, grammar seems to be a boring part for the ESL learner. ‘To be an effective teacher and to make learner enjoy with the grammar’ an attempt was made with the questions viz, “How do we teach grammar in the ESL classrooms? Can it be taught in an interesting way?” They shared how difficult and problematic component of grammar can be taught in interesting and interactive way in ‘teacher friendly’ environment.

Experience of Developing Reading Materials for Bangladeshi L2 Learners by Sharmistha Das and Masuda Khatoon highlighted the challenges and opportunities of a context where additional readers need to be integrated with the mainstream English language curriculum and English in Action in Bangladesh. In Bangladeshi Government schools, children are hardly exposed to any English reading materials except their course books. In the classroom, reading is treated as a mere process of decoding linguistic components rather than an interactive approach to developing the skill in a meaningful context. To expose primary children to a variety of English reading materials, English in Action has introduced a pilot reading scheme initiative.

Shawn Huizenga’s presentation Content Based Instruction: Approaches and Considerations highlighted on content-based instruction which is an increasingly important aspect of second language education. As one of the broadest of all pedagogic categories, however, it presented unique challenges to language instructors. This presentation addressed some of these challenges, discussing the nature, benefits and practical applications of content-based instruction. The presentation was of interest to educators interested in expanding their current English courses to include greater substantive content as well as instructors who are teaching content-based classes and are interested in exploring new methods of instruction.

Shefali Kulkarni’s presentation Listening and Speaking Activities for Under-Resourced and Large Classes conveyed the fact that under resourced and large classes cause great anxiety to teachers. In this workshop, they talked about listening and speaking activities where the class is large and under resourced and the teacher and the students become the resource themselves. The participants experienced predominantly listening and speaking activities and class management techniques to handle large classes. The three activities would be a scenario created by a team on the instructions of another team, a cheating dictation and a jig-saw story-telling with presentations where the resources are extremely limited.

Shyam B. Pandey and Suman Laudari’s workshop Teaching Grammar: Not a Problem Any More stressed on some handy ideas to teach grammar to teachers teaching English at different level. The workshop began with a warm-up activity and was followed by some intensive communicative activities to teach grammar. Then, the presenters presented the rationale of the activities and briefly highlight the theories of teaching grammar.

Suresh Kumar Shrestha’s presentation Fossilization: shall we challenge a challenge? focused on fossilization as a hindrance to language learning which appears naturally, when it comes to learning foreign languages. It is the result of having incorrect linguistic stuff set by repetition. So what about all those correct assets we possess through long practice? Can native speakers avoid their naturalness? Isn’t it fossilization? We know attitude dominates aptitude.

Susan Deith’s session Teaching IELTS Skills explored some motivating and interesting ways to present and teach a number of IELTS skills for each of the four sections i.e. reading, writing, speaking and listening. In her another paper, Making Learning Fun – without Paper!! By Susan Deith conveyed the fact that we have all been there when we need to start a lesson with something to grab our students’ attention and then finish it where you have time to fill! In this active, hands-on session, participants learned paperless or low resource activities for all ages and abilities.
Sushma Parvathini’s presentation Grammar in Communicative Approach: Classroom Practice focused on the nature of grammar teaching in the communicative classroom. The situation is examined in the Indian context. The paper provides a clear picture of teacher perceptions in teaching grammar through the communicative approach and an understanding of how these perceptions are realized in classroom practice. An attempt has also been made to develop a pedagogic framework for teaching grammar through the communicative approach. The study is based on the data collected through classroom observation, questionnaires and informal interviews.

Language as a Medium to Teach for Social Change by Sylvan Blignaut highlighted on South African society which has undergone dramatic educational changes in the past decade. Considerations about redress and equity have now been elevated to the top of the agenda. Although many policies have emerged in post-Apartheid South Africa, addressing issues of race, redress and equity, racism and poverty continues unabated in the society. In this paper, the presenter argued that a focus on language teaching offers the best possibility to mitigate racism and move the society towards social cohesion and a more democratic and just future. Without social justice teaching, ideals like reconciliation and the “rainbow nation” could never be realized.

Tania Hossain’s presentaion Native- vs. Non-native-Medium Schools in Bangladesh: Inequalities and Policy Options highlighted that in Bangladesh disparities between native- and non-native-medium schools are fuelled in part by government actions such as resource allocation and administrative oversight that determine institutional policies and practices which lead to societal inequality. Students from resource-poor schools, where English teaching is at best perfunctory, are significantly disadvantaged. The implications of these findings for reframing current language policy are presented. A four-pronged ethnographic method was used to find out the differences between observed Native medium and Non-native medium schools. Results indicated that students from resource-poor rural schools are fraught with pedagogical inequalities, and call into question the government’s current educational policy.

Tapasi Bhattacharya’s presentation Beyond the Binary: English in Nepali highlighted on the magical power of English Education in the Nepalese context from the South Asian perspectives in course of the globalization process. She attempted to address the policy documents on English in Nepal and trace the history of the changing status of English Education in Nepal illustrating and referring to different texts from the Nepali scholars and foreign scholars, she also discussed how English have greatly influenced the Nepali context, the Nepali vernacular and also the Nepali society. Finally, she also demystified the hurdles to achieve the national goal and suggest some remedial measures.

Making Your Classroom an “English Zone” by Tara Bates emphasized For most students who study English, the classroom is their only chance to practice. Many teachers would like to set up an environment where the students speak English without translating into their native language — but it can be hard to get the students to follow along. This workshop showed how to start out the school year right with simple activities that create an “English zone.” As your students begin to listen, speak, and think in English without translating, you will see an amazing improvement in their skills!

Tasik Mumin’s presentation Teaching Speaking English: Nervousness or More? Justified that most ESL students are either shy or nervous to speak English, be it at personal level or public sphere. There are different opinions regarding the methods and techniques to improve speaking skills. While developing speaking abilities of students, ESL teachers experience multi-faceted challenges such as cultural barrier, methods to be adopted, class size and mixed ability class. This paper enquired into the reasons behind students’ hesitation at tertiary level in Bangladesh and suggests ways to overcome the barrier within limited time-frame.

Tazin Aziz Chaudhury and Md. Ziaul Karim’s Presentation, CLT Approach in Developing English Reading Skills in Bangladesh focused on the methodology known as Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), in relation to other teaching methods and explore its applications for enhancing reading skills of the English language learners in Bangladesh. It also focused on the different understanding of CLT from teachers and students, its misconceptions and perceptions and also its future prospects in Bangladesh. Finally, it suggested guidelines for employing it more successfully in ELT classrooms with the view to developing English reading skills.

Learners’ Acceptance of Feedback on Their Writing and its Impacts by Tazria Islam Discussed the effective role of different types of feedback (oral, written and peer) for improving the students writing skill in a large class room and learner’s perception about the feedback strategy that they prefer as their assessment tools for the composition class. About one-twenty Bangladeshi English Non-Major Students of Stamford University Bangladesh took part in the investigation. The result showed learners’ positive attitude towards oral and written feedback. They also suggest that the first draft of writing should be checked by their peers, but the teacher should provide the written feedback on their final drafts of writing.

Thakur Prasad Bhusal’s presentation Developing Extensive Reading in EFL Classroom discussed that with the changing context in ELT stressed on to develop such a reading skill in their students in which they could get the real taste of reading as independent fluent readers which, in fact, is the ultimate goal of teaching reading. In this sense, to maximize benefits from reading, students need to be motivated and should be involved in both extensive and intensive reading. In this regard, this presentation revealed the research findings on what several kinds of motivational strategies English teachers find useful and of great importance for making the learners motivated toward extensive kind of independent reading development.

Tirtha Raj Wagley’s presentation Decision Making in ESL Classroom clearly expressed different approaches have been introduced in the field of second language teaching. Therefore, ESL teachers are often required to make the best decisions to suit a particular goal while planning, teaching and evaluating the students. The teachers are unable to make right decisions because of lack of appropriate training. The workshop created feeling of self-awareness in teachers making them able to select the right options, which helped to develop their professionalism. The paper has been divided into three sections: Planning Decision, Interactive Decision and Evaluative Decision. Each of them presented some reflective questions and tasks for discussion, which helped create self-awareness in teachers.

Tushar Madhukar Kamble’s paper Cultural Influence on Teaching English focused on the fact that the learning of a second language entails conscious analytical efforts. It encompassed several components such as syntactic, semantic, and communicative competence. Learning second language does not only mean to get command on vocabulary, pronunciation and grammatical structures but to incorporate cultural elements, which are inseparable from language itself. Second language learning plays a crucial role in paying respect towards one another’s culture. The disconnection of the learner and teacher with cultural roots of second language may lead into a confused state.

Introducing Humour in English Language Classroom by Ushakiran Wagle focused on the fact that lesson stands a better chance of success if it is based on the learning-through-fun principle. This principle is realized when the language lesson includes elements of humour. Humour is the ability to amuse others: the quality of being funny. Applying this ability to amuse in the language classroom can be a good way of making our students motivated towards learning. Motivation definitely makes our lessons effective. Come and join me in my session in which she shared some ways of using humour in the language classroom. Bring some humour with you, too.

Cambridge ESOL Examinations in Nepal by Uttam Panta clarified about the importance and usefulness of ESOL Examinations. It covers different examinations that Universal Language & Compute Institute (ULCI) administers in Nepal. These exams are beneficial to students, teachers and people of all occupations. ULCI is the University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations Testing Centre in Nepal. ULCI administers
• Teaching Knowledge Test (TKT)
• Key English Test (KET)
• Young Learners English (YLE
• Preliminary English Test (PET)
• The Business English Certificates (BEC)

In the paper Role of LI in English Language Classroom: Does it help or Hinder?, Huma Khan reviewed the role of L1 in English Language Classroom and to determine to what extent L1 might be utilized to maximize in learning English at tertiary level. She further deliberated that the general assumption that has prevailed is that English ought to be learnt through English, and not by the use of L1. Consequently, several teaching methods and trends support the use of L1 as a helpful teaching and learning tool.
Role of English Consonant Letter Name in L2 Spelling Development by V.E.Venkatasamy explained learners’ use of knowledge of letter name to spell words. Two sets of learners, typically developing learners (TDL) and visually impaired learners (VIL), across 4th, 5th and 6th grades were selected. The result showed that learners use their knowledge of letter name in vowel consonant letter names. In comparison to the TLD, VIL are developmentally slow but not developmentally deviant and the letter-name error percentage among learners decreased with a rise in their proficiency and age. The study argued for a need to develop phonemic awareness skills.

Ms. Valerie Pflug’s presentaion Discourse Analysis: A Tool for Reflection in the Language Classroom conveyed the fact that as language teachers, we want our students to have as many quality opportunities as possible to practice the target language during a class session. Therefore, it behaved us to eliminate classroom talk that is not productive, and behaviours that cause some students to be excluded. Discourse analysis was an invaluable tool for creating a reflective practice in which the conversational exchanges between teacher and students are examined.

Varpe Machhindra Govind’s presentation Linguistic and Communicative Competence in English focused on time when English education was started in India. It argued the different Education Commission views about the importance of English. It suggests two types of competences – Linguistic and Communicative competences. Linguistic competence consists of phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics.

Vocabulary Learning Strategies adapted by Nepalese Secondary School English as Foreign Language Learners by Vim Lal Shrestha presented a paper based on an academic research. It has explored the vocabulary learning strategies adapted by Nepalese secondary level students. On the basis of gathered literatures, the presenter analyzed the Nepalese learners’ experience through the qualitative paradigm. Qualitative is a methodology and philosophy this research study.

Vishnu S Rai conducted a workshop on Creative Writing: Getting out of the Box. Creative writing helps learners not only to develop their writing skills but all other skills. It breaks the monotony of the class and brings fresh air in. Many people wrongly believe that creative writing cannot be taught, that it is only for a few genius students. It is true that by only teaching creative writing we cannot make Eliot or Hardy. However, that is not the main purpose of creative writing: the main purpose is to help learner develop their language competence for which nothing is better than creative writing. My experience is that students like creative writing, that it boosts their moral as they realize that they can write in English and that they take more interest in learning because creative writing activities are fun. It is therefore, desirable for the teacher to know use creative writing activities in their class.

Symposium on Creative writing by Tapasi Bhattacharya, Maya Rai, Motikala Dewan and Sarita Dewan presented various aspects of creative writing activities for teaching English. This symposium was a part of regular activity of Asian Teachers’ Creative Group. In this symposium, they proposed to involve participants in the following creative writing activities and discuss how those activities can be applied in teaching English.

1. Writing poems
2. Performing creative writing (e.g. Slam poetry)
3. Story writing

Professor W. Jon Lambden’s presentation Taking Stress out of the Test emphasized on testing which is an integral part of both learning and teaching but it doesn’t have to be nor should it be stressful. The presenter discussed student attitudes and fears and highlight the most useful and appropriate techniques to moderate and overcome stress in testing not only in the classroom but also in periodic and annual assessment events such as the SAT,GRE, GMAT and TOEFL.

Turning Students into Temporary Teachers: Effective Techniques for Teaching Pronunciation by William Wolf focused on teaching pronunciation, which is especially difficult in large classes: generally, there is only one person (the teacher) who knows how to produce the correct sounds. Quite often, teachers use methods in which only the teacher is active and in which students only listen passively. However, several techniques allow teachers to turn students quickly into co-teachers. When students are co-teachers, it becomes possible for them to be far more active in class (in peer-group activities, for example). This workshop shows a clear step-by-step method to turn students into temporary teachers and to build learner autonomy.

Yadu Prasad Gyawali’s presentation The Reflective Teacher introduced reflective teaching as a significant way to facilitate teachers to build their professionalism. It also talks about the levels and time of reflection. It attempted to split out the causes of non- reflective behaviour of English language teachers in the second language context. A strong ethical component emphasizes the several techniques available in our context. This presentation suggested every teacher needs to be reflective-friendly in the real world of teaching and professionalism.

CLT Materials/Assessments at the Secondary Level in Bangladesh: Teachers’/Learners’ Perception by Golam Kader focused on CLT (Communicative Language Teaching) which was introduced in Bangladesh a decade ago, but to what extent has it accomplished its target? The CLT materials are tools to implement this approach. Furthermore, the mode of assessment, a major parameter to assess learners’ performance, is expected to be designed to prepare more competent language users. The presentation was about the CLT materials being used and modes of assessment being practiced at the secondary level in Bangladesh. The presentation also uncovered the teachers’ and learners’ perception about CLT from a survey of 20 teachers and 200 learners.

The 18th International Conference of NELTA will take place on 16th – 18th, February, 2013 and 20th – 21st , February, 2013.

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